✍️✍️✍️ John Wilkes Booths Role In The Civil War Essay

Sunday, November 28, 2021 7:16:04 AM

John Wilkes Booths Role In The Civil War Essay

You may never run for office, but it would John Wilkes Booths Role In The Civil War Essay comforting to know you were ready for it—vocabulary-wise! They are the innovators in the NPS. Where the hell are our so-called John Wilkes Booths Role In The Civil War Essay Ministers? Narrator Various Cascades : Yeah!

John Wilkes Booth and the Lincoln Conspirators

The remote, ubiquitous mayor was photographed in four different parts of the city yesterday. We were worried lest the hostages be suffering from sanctuary, malnutrition. The tranquil, sinister tone of the spring morning was suddenly broken by the loud explosion. I heard his voice excruciating, reverberating through the corridors. The privations, harbingers that the poor people endured in their ghetto apartments were reprehensible. The children were emaciated, fretful when awakened from their nap. We were asked to swap horses in midstream, cool our heels while waiting for the bus. Which noun tells you that something is on the way? Which verb means to extract, to get something out of?

Which adjective describes an action that is based on a whim? Which adjective tells you about children who are very bright for their age? If a wealthy family moved into your neighborhood, which adjective would be suitable for them? Which adjective can be substituted for enthusiastic? If you had to coax someone into doing something, which verb would be appropriate? When we call a garbage collector a sanitary engineer, which noun comes to mind? In seizing control, which verb is appropriate? Which adjective describes a combative, quarrelsome person? Which verb is a good synonym for scold? What do you indulge in when you belittle that which you cannot possess? Which adjective describes a poverty-stricken person? Which two nouns are almost synonymous?

Clues 4th Day 1st Day 3rd Day 1st Day 2nd Day Aftermath of an Earthquake The Egyptian earthquake in October killed residents of Cairo and hospitalized thousands of others, many of whom were expected to as a result of their injuries. Muslim fundamentalists were active in providing relief to the survivors in the form of food, water, blankets, and tents to house the more than families made homeless by the disaster.

Throughout history, following volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, tidal waves, and other calamities that periodically mankind, religious leaders have used such occurrences to bring the people back to their faith. Barnum rejected the extortion attempt. Then come to me and I will estimate the value of your services as a publicity agent. A man who seeks the limelight should not care what is written about him but should be concerned only when they stop writing about him. Newspapers give space to the virulent activities of those agitators on the grounds that they are newsworthy. TV producers and radio executives, seeking for sensationalism, often extend a welcome to such controversial characters. Since we cherish freedom of speech, we are loath to deny the request, even if he preaches hatred.

As a result, hate-mongers are given the opportunity to rent halls, conduct meetings, publish abusive literature, and solicit contributions. What can be done about them? One astute observer, Prof. Without the warmth of the spotlight, he feels that the bigot will freeze and become ineffectual. Definitions Match the new words with their definitions.

Fineberg urges community-relations organizations to scrutinize the nefarious activities of hate-mongers and to be prepared to furnish information about them to amicable inquirers. When a rabble-rouser is coming, those organizations should privately expose him to opinion-molders. In addition, constructive efforts should be taken to induce people to involve themselves in projects for improving intergroup relations. Once again, use those words in original sentences. After all, some said, it was a problem solely for a small group of intravenous drug users who shared dirty needles, and for the homosexual community. But as the numbers of afflicted people grew during the s and s, we began to the tragic news stories more closely.

The deaths of young people like Ryan White and Kimberly Bergalis, not members of the at-risk groups referred to above, convinced us that what was at first regarded merely as a illness was actually a threat to the general community. In the mids, medical researchers were optimistic that a vaccine for AIDS would be found in short order. Those predictions proved to be inaccurate. In October , former Surgeon-General C. Everett Koop said that he doubted we would ever find a cure for the disease. It was difficult to explain, but the similar sensations in the past had been accurate—trouble was on the way.

He sat at his desk, trying to peruse a company report but his efforts were ineffectual. When the phone rang, he recoiled with fear—it was his wife and she was hysterical. Their son had been bitten by a mad dog! As soon as Jerry Hart could get the pertinent facts from his wife, he dashed out of the office on his way home. Visions of an ugly mastiff with foaming jaws obsessed him.

A crowd of people had gathered in front of his house so that Jerry had to force his way through them. Secondly, the elusive dog had frustrated all attempts to find him so far. Finally, the decision would have to be made whether Bobby was to undergo the painful vaccination administered daily for two weeks. Hart said that a neighbor who had seen the dog claimed that it had been foaming at the mouth, barking, and growling constantly—all symptomatic of rabies.

Hart sat down to think about their next step. Actually, it is caused by a live virus from the saliva of an infected animal. If saliva gets into a bite wound, the victim may get rabies. The virus travels along the nerves to the spine and brain. Once the salient characteristics appear ten days to six months then death is imminent. Also, muscle spasms and convulsions. Hart said. In addition, you will have seen many of those words used several times in subsequent lessons. Start by matching the 20 words with their meanings. Clues 4th Day 1st Day 4th Day 1st Day 3rd Day The Potato that Strangled Idaho People who are about the sight of blood or in horror from most forms of violence would do well to avoid some of the movies now being shown at their local cinemas.

Producers have learned that films that scare the patrons out of their seats, ironically, put millions of fans into those seats, keeping them in the goose pimple-inducing spectacles that flash across the screen. Of course, each movie carries with it a rating that indicates its suitability for certain age groups, either because of its subject matter, language, presentation, or level of violence. And we can be sure that as long as shock films ring up a merry tune on the cash registers, producers will not from making them. A director who specializes in making gory films involving monsters, vampires, and brutal serial killers boasted in a college lecture that his work was in good taste. The station was inundated with phone calls but all leads were fruitless.

After biting Bobby it vanished. The six-year-old was too concerned with the bites he had received to see where the dog disappeared to. Twenty-four hours had passed without result, and even if the rabies could not be corroborated, Jerry was determined to see that his son received the vaccine. At the suggestion of some friends, he organized a comprehensive search party, zealously fanning out in circles around the supermarket. They knocked on every door, inspected every dog, and came back empty-handed.

Although the Harts were sick with worry they had to be coerced into going to sleep , little Bobby seemed to be in great spirits. By meticulously checking the registrations of every red station wagon in the neighborhood and then cross- checking dog licenses, the police narrowed the search to four owners. After a few telephone calls, the apologetic owner was located and directed to bring her muzzled German shepherd to the Hart domicile. The lax owner, Mrs.

Jerry Hart noticed for the first time in two days that his uneasy feeling had departed. Because the German shepherd was not rabid, the necessity for the painful treatment was obviated. Little Bobby was treated to an ice cream sundae and a Walt Disney double feature. The neighbors searched for other lurid happenings, and Jerry Hart went back to his office. We know that those who get the message of this book, true vocabulary mastery, will make few such errors. If you were able to get them all right, think of antonyms for numbers 7, 8, 10, 17, and Lead us not into Penn Station. Little did she realize that they would quickly her letterbox with their pet mistakes. As a result, Ms. They lived in the Sarah Dessert and traveled by Camelot. Her advice: enjoy! Foy, that he was quitting as an accountant to become an actor, the man was convulsed with laughter.

After Mr. Monte confessed that he had been developing ulcers as an accountant, and when his psychiatrist suggested that the sickness was a result of inhibitions, Monte agreed. Now a fortuitous opportunity to get into show business required Monte to make an immediate decision. Foy stormed out of the office, muttering incoherently about hippies, beatniks, and others of that ilk. Since the company would stage five major plays during the summer, as well as a half-dozen shows for children, there was a chance that Monte might actually get a part before too many weeks had elapsed.

The remuneration would be nominal but at last Monte Ziltch would be fulfilling a life-long ambition. All through those weeks, Monte painted, carried, nailed, collected, ran, studied, and perspired. He had expunged all traces of debits and credits from his mind, burying himself in the more flamboyant world of the theater. But now there was an open audition to cast the final show of the season. It was to be a jaunty original comedy, given a summer tryout prior to a Broadway opening.

Unfortunately, the competition was too rough—but the director assigned Monte to a less ostentatious part. And so for the first two weeks in September the stage-struck accountant had a two-minute, two-line part. What was his role? At first, their use may be conscious, even studied. However, the squeaks will soon disappear. Try a few this weekend. Note the resemblance between flamboyant and ostentatious. Indian summer x. From Week 12 Choose the word that makes sense in each of the sentences below.

The senator went into a lengthy diatribe, remuneration about government waste in the military budget. Most reformers are seeking to create a schism, utopia. Lorraine was criticized sharply for the ostentatious, nominal way in which she furnished her apartment. Anyone so ilk, timorous should not have been selected to guard the castle. My brother was promoted to a prestigious, flamboyant job in his company. Although his speech was anathema, jaunty we were able to sense its underlying seriousness. The failing grade was expunged, truncated from her record when she submitted the excellent term paper. I got my job as a result of a fractious, fortuitous meeting with the director of personnel. The bookkeeper is such an integral, incoherent part of our organization that we pay her a very high salary.

We marched in front of the embassy with placards, inhibitions held high. The television talk shows of our era, featuring such public figures as Regis Philbin, Oprah Winfrey, and Ellen De Generes, attract millions of daytime viewers and constitute a powerful influence on the American scene. When the media can hold the attention of so sizable a chunk of couch potatoes, it pays to scrutinize it closely. A student at Stanford University, doing her doctoral thesis on the unusual popularity of the afternoon talk shows, noted the fierce competition among those programs for guests who are off the beaten track. They have shown teenagers who marry people in their sixties, daughters and mothers who date the same man, men who have gone through a marriage ceremony with other men, women with prominent tattoos, and other people who are totally free of.

And say what you want about good taste, millions watch us every day, and as long as the ratings are that healthy, sponsors will pay good money to be identified with us. The scientists were alarmed by incontrovertible evidence of surreptitious German experiments, and they asked for speedy approval. Italian-born Enrico Fermi was the ideal man to lead the atomic research. Already in he had won the Nobel Prize for work with radioactive elements and neutron bombardment. Fermi had found a haven from the Fascists his wife was Jewish and he knew that if the Germans were the first to develop an atomic bomb it would mean that Hitler could subjugate the entire world.

The international race for atomic supremacy was on. It consisted of layers of graphite, alternated with chunks of uranium. The uranium emitted neutrons, and the graphite slowed them down. Holes were left for long cadmium safety rods. By withdrawing those control rods Fermi could speed up the production of neutrons, thus increasing the number of uranium atoms that would be split fission. When the rods were withdrawn to a critical point, then the neutrons would be produced so fast that the graphite and cadmium could not absorb them. In that manner a chain reaction would result.

The big question remained—was it viable? Fermi moved his materials to an abandoned squash court under a football stadium at the University of Chicago. His pace accelerated because they were proceeding on the premise that the Germans were close to atomic success. Six weeks after the pile had been started, its critical size was reached. Almost fifty scientists and several incredulous observers mounted a balcony to watch. One physicist remained on the floor; it was his job to extract the final cadmium control rod. Unbearable tension permeated the atmosphere. Fermi completed his calculations, waited for a propitious moment, and then gave the signal. After twenty-eight minutes he curtailed the experiment, giving the signal to replace the control rod.

The normally reserved scientists, unable to repress their excitement, let out a tremendous cheer and gathered around Fermi to shake his hand. You now have the chance to see whether you remember their definitions. Lucas, a super sniffer, to work. A canine trainer offered the pig to Union City, suggesting that its intelligence and unique skill will make Lucas a fighter against illegal narcotics. Jagusak has already taught his pound porker-detective how to find cocaine, hashish, and marijuana.

While some law enforcement officials were at first, they quickly became believers when they saw the Sherlock Holmes of the sty locate underground drug scents that had eluded trained dogs. Dorie was black, and the highest job to which he could then aspire in the U. Navy was that of messman. While Dorie was technically a member of a great fighting fleet, he was not expected to fight. Most Army and Navy officers inveighed against blacks as fighting men. Although blacks were nettled by such overt prejudice, Dorie Miller apparently accepted being relegated to the role of a messhall servant. Now, as he poured the coffee, Dorie was wondering why the airplanes above were making so much noise on a peaceful Sunday morning.

Sample Sentences Use the new words in the proper blanks. Jumping up from his supine position, the powerfully built messman from Waco, Texas, headed for the deck. Everywhere that Dorie looked he saw smoke and mammoth warships lying on their sides. Overhead, dozens of Japanese dive bombers controlled the skies without a U. The havoc was enormous. Definitions Match the new words with their meaning.

He dragged his captain to safety and turned back to see that the machine-gunner had been killed. Dorie took the big gun and trained it on the incoming bombers. Within the space of ten minutes he was credited with destroying four bombers while dodging the bullets of their fighter escorts. The enemy scurried away, having struck the incisive blow that precipitated U.

Amidst the dead bodies and the ruined fleet were the heroes such as Dorie Miller. The Navy had attempted to stereotype him, but Dorie changed all that. Although he could have accepted a sinecure at a U. Philadelphia lawyer v. Ellen Kaner, a Dallas chemist. They admitted that the phrase in question, one of selected by computer chips, was a mistake. Not only will we remove it immediately but will swap with anyone who bought the offending doll. Danny had confessed to complicity in the killing of his brother-in-law after the police had refused to allow him to see his lawyer. Despite the fact that Danny later recanted his confession, he was found culpable and jailed. Two of the words are very close in meaning. He proposed that lawyers be entitled to sit in when the police question a suspect but the Illinois courts rejected that on the grounds that it would effectively preclude all questioning by legal authorities.

Legal aid, said the judges, must be instantly available to a suspect. Each case was heard on its merits, and in numerous instances people who had been convicted of serious offenses were freed because of the new standards established in the Escobedo case. After getting out, Danny was not a paragon of virtue, according to the police. He led a nomadic existence, drifting from job to job, and was arrested frequently. With asperity, and a few choice epithets, Danny referred to police harassment.

In a sense, everyone who listens to you is wire-tapping your conversation. By the end of this week you will have gained a greater familiarity with words and 60 idioms— enough to educate a conscientious wire-tapper. Numbers 1 and 13 are close in meaning. Clues 2nd Day 1st Day 4th Day 1st Day 4th Day Questionable Advertisements The Nostalgia Factory, a Boston art gallery, staged an exhibit of advertisements that had outraged various segments of the community.

For example, one of the fast food chains ran a TV commercial that showed unattractive school cafeteria workers in hairnets, making that experience less tasty than a visit to Roy Rogers. Who is asking companies to contracts with those agencies that are in creating racist types of commercial messages? The honeybee is a gregarious insect whose habitat is a colony that he shares with as many as 80, bees. Although the individual bees live for only a few days, their colony can be operative for several years.

A cursory study of the activities of these insects reveals an orderliness and a social structure that is truly amazing. The queen lays the eggs that hatch into thousands of female workers; some queens live as long as five years and lay up to one million eggs. The frugal worker builds and maintains the nest, collects and stores the honey, and is the antithesis of the lazy drone, or male honeybee, who does not work and has no sting. After the workers have constructed a hive of waterproof honeycomb made from beeswax , the queen begins to lay eggs in the first cells. While some workers embellish the hive, others fly out in search of nectar and pollen. With their long tongues they gather nectar and use their hind legs to carry the pollen from the flowers.

They fly directly back to the hive and then dance around the honeycomb, their movements indicating the direction of the flowers. Meanwhile, other workers have been cleaning cells, caring for the young, and guarding the precious cache of nectar. Another special coterie is entrusted with heating or cooling the hive. Dedicated to the welfare of the queen and the entire insect community, all of these workers display a complete absence of cupidity. Workers choose a few larvae to be queens, feeding them royal jelly, a substance rich in proteins and vitamins. While the queen is changing from a larva to a pupa, a team of workers builds a special cell for her.

Soon the young queen hatches, eats the prepared honey, and grows strong. After she kills any rivals who have the temerity to challenge her, an amorous note is injected. She flies from the hive and mates with one or more drones on her first flight. Then the process of egg laying begins. When her progeny saturate the hive, scouts are dispatched to find a new location, and the bees swarm after their leader to begin the amazing cycle again. Sample Sentences Use the new words in the following sentences; remember, past tenses may be required.

The filth of the lucre did not disturb him at all. One Friday evening, Roy continued, a brash had the to try to steal the ill- gotten gains. Having bought the combination from a relative who had installed Mr. His made him go back for that small change, and in that moment, Mr. In short, the idea was to plant fallacious documents concerning the Allied invasion of Europe upon a dead officer, have his body recovered by agents who would transmit the false information to Germany, and then observe the effects of the plan. First, they conducted an assiduous search for a body that looked as though it had recently been killed in an airplane disaster.

Then, a detailed history of the man had to be invented that would be so impeccable that the enemy would accept its authenticity. This meant documents, love letters, personal effects, keys, photographs, etc. Each step was fraught with difficulty, but the schemers were unbelievably resourceful. Shortly thereafter, the Spanish Embassy notified the British that the body had been recovered. The secret information was transmitted to the German High Command, through a labyrinth of underground networks, to be evaluated. Subsequently, when the actual attack took place, Allied casualties were minimized. After the war, Commander Montagu received a medal from the king of England.

At the presentation ceremony, the king politely inquired where the young officer had earned his citation. But Major Martin, undoubtedly, would have known all the words below—do you? Note the similarity between numbers 13 and The U. Benson had claimed that whatever money he collects on the street can be compared to the funds raised by legitimate charities, and, therefore, he is entitled to a federal deduction. Government officials regard his analogy as and disagree. She countered that, if Jack merely sat on a street corner with his hand out, the government had a good case. With a mixture of innate movements and learned ones, some laboratory chimps now have an extensive vocabulary.

It is irrelevant that Washoe cannot actually talk. Several years ago, two married researchers embarked on an interesting project: they reared and trained a chimp in almost the same manner as they would have raised a child. The animal did beautifully, convincing the couple of the inherent ability of the chimpanzee. They can press buttons, manipulate levers, avoid shocks, etc. When food is placed out of reach, the animals can prepare a ladder of boxes to reach it. With the aid of his long, powerful hands he can swing rapidly from tree to tree and cover considerable ground in his peregrinations.

Chimps are loyal in their conjugal relationships, taking only one mate at a time. The warmth of Mr. However, higher animals who apply themselves can master all of them. Note the similarity between numbers 8 and 9. Labor Department, court officials, legislators, religious groups, and community agencies. Unscrupulous contractors scour the countryside in search of homeless, , and unemployed men and women, offering to put them to work at good jobs picking fruits and vegetables. Labor Department investigates the of complaints of abused workers, issues fines, and revokes the licenses of contractors. But many such shady employers pay the fines which they to be operating expenses and continue to run company stores that cheat the workers, subjugate them with drugs and alcohol, them with advances on their paltry wages at high interest, and use violence against those whom they regard as troublemakers.

His story is repeated by hundreds of others who have been treated shabbily by corrupt contractors. Until sufficient funds are allocated by state and federal agencies, and until there is the proper public response, these abuses will continue. Following a bloodless coup, his nephew, Prince Schubert, took command of the poor nation. Sample Sentences Based upon your understanding of the new words, as discovered from the context, use the correct words in the following sentences. Those who had been jailed on false charges were exonerated by special tribunals. In addition, Prince Schubert was able to get the United States to underwrite a substantial loan that would enable him to start a program of public works.

Even so, Ruritania was still in desperate trouble. Speaking on radio, the young reformer explained the reasons for higher taxes and food rationing; he was blunt when he stated the need for personal sacrifices. Use the new words in the following sentences yourself. The words that you are about to review, however, are all legitimate, acceptable dictionary words. Despite the lack of hard evidence, some people continue to believe that the depths of our lakes and isolated mountain caves remain the dwelling places of fantasy figures. Now, a new star for the credulous has surfaced. Japanese television was asked to a search for Ogopogo, a long-necked reptilian creature said to inhabit Lake Okanagan in the mountains of south-central British Columbia. Ogopogo stories are in that area as people produce photos of rippling water and shadows resembling an enormous serpent with flippers, gliding slowly in large circles.

Those who at what they regard as nonsense and pagan superstition are quite in belittling Ogopogo fans. Nevertheless, the legends, which have a life of their own, happily, have brought thousands of tourists and business to the Okanagan Valley. Public health officials are quick to indict the insects as carriers of viruses that cause yellow fever and polio. Although past evidence has been somewhat nebulous, recent studies also show that an allergy to roaches may contribute significantly to asthma. Little wonder, therefore, that the pesky cockroach is under attack. Upon entering a cellar that is redolent with their aroma, you are not likely to forget the odor. No one can accuse the hungry and thirsty bugs of being abstemious. Sample Sentences The words above fit into the blanks below.

They have endured the vicissitudes of weather, natural disasters, war, and planned liquidation. The climate may be sultry or frigid but roaches persevere. As soon as the scientists devise a puissant chemical, some bugs succumb. Since the average female produces close to three hundred descendants, little hope is held out for a final solution to the roach problem. Nevertheless, extermination campaigns continue unabated. Surprisingly, some sentimental souls become maudlin as they consider the persecution of the insects. Whether you are going to get excited over a roach, write a poem, take a College Board examination, or compose a letter to a loved one, it helps to have a rich vocabulary.

Pesky k. Reviled b. Maudlin l. Puissant c. Repose m. Nebulous d. Abstemious n. Trenchant e. Sultry o. Lugubrious f. Vicissitudes p. Disparate g. Redolent q. Indict h. Levity r. Extant i. Derogatory s. Omnivorous j. Unabated t. Edifice 1. Everest Clues 1st Day 4th Day 1st Day 2nd Day 1st Day Chlorine Compounds on Trial The chances are that the water supply where you live is disinfected by chlorine, one of the elements on the periodic table. Yet, complaints about chlorine continue , identifying it as a health and environmental risk. Greenpeace, the environmental activist group, stands ready to chlorinated organic elements, alleging that they are toxic. The Federal Environmental Protection Agency is reexamining the health hazards that are prevalent when materials containing chlorine are processed at high temperatures.

A scientist with the Environmental Defense Fund thinks that chlorinated chemicals should be phased out. Growing up in an atmosphere of opulence, the young prince was constantly shielded from the cruel realities of the world. An army of obsequious servants and tutors catered to his every desire, providing Siddhartha with instruction in riding, fencing, dancing, and painting—while lavishing fulsome praise upon him. Which two words are almost synonymous? First he would cleanse himself by becoming an ascetic; then he would study Hindu wisdom in order to be prepared to help his suffering people.

After six years of desultory wandering and attracting only a handful of disciples, Siddhartha came to a huge tree near the Indian city of Gaya. For seven weeks he sat beneath its branches, seeking an answer for his personal torment. Finally, it is said, he underwent a metamorphosis, becoming the Enlightened One—the Buddha. Only through the middle path could man achieve bona fide peace and salvation. Buddha continued to preach until the age of eighty, spreading the philosophy that man has the power to shape his own destiny. Through good deeds and pure thoughts man may reach nirvana. Interestingly enough, the man who objected to traditional religious worship was to become idolized by millions throughout the world.

This week is no exception. In a celebrated essay about Joan of Arc, Mark Twain wrote movingly of her brief moment in the spotlight—two short years in which she made an indelible mark on world history. At age 16 she was illiterate, had never strayed from her sleepy little village, knew nothing of military combat, or courts of law. But at age 17, in a complete she was named Commander- in-Chief of the French army, vowing to restore her king to his throne. Joan defended herself brilliantly at a court trial, although she could neither read nor write.

She was able to forecast future events with remarkable accuracy, correctly predicting her own martyrdom. Mark Twain understood how geniuses such as Napoleon, Edison, and Wagner could develop but one could the facts for a lifetime without being able to explain how this humble peasant girl could display the qualities of a mature statesman, a learned jurist, and a military wizard. But the statistics are inexact because it is estimated that there are nine covert alcoholics for every one under treatment. She started drinking socially in high school or college. Although frequently incapacitated, she can fabricate a story skillfully and thus conceal her true physical condition.

She often attributes her alcoholism to connubial stress, boredom, or depression. A large percentage of the women give family histories of alcoholism. From time to time in the lessons that follow, your alertness will be tested as a previously learned word is reintroduced. Maslow arrived, but when she left it was in apple pie order. If women realized the harmful extent of the cumulative effect of alcohol, they might taper off in their public and recondite drinking. Forty-three percent of the female alcoholics in a survey showed evidence of liver damage, and a quarter of the whole group had a high white-blood-cell count. Almost five percent of the patients died shortly after their release from the hospital.

Sample Sentences If you can still see clearly after all the references to liquor, use the new words in the following sentences. Using alcohol in an attempt to palliate her problems. Deluding herself about the extent of her drinking habits. Drinking at regular time periods, both day and night. Reliance upon alcohol as a prelude to a major social obligation. Using alcohol as a medication for real or chimerical illnesses. The head counselor ran our camp according to his own Draconian Code. Alcohol does not mix with gasoline! We have seen those slogans on many billboards. Draconian Code x. Consider the of the salon owners. But a spokesperson for the Department of Consumer Affairs said that beauty parlors will have to with the situation honestly, just as dry cleaners and used-car dealers did when they were apprised of the law.

A city-proposed settlement, however, is to have those salons that are cited for violations of the law offer free haircuts to women for a period of three months before having to pay a stiff fine for repeated offenses. As Mr. Sloane pursued his investigation of the phenomenon, he discovered that a Dr. Furthermore, those at the bottom of the alphabet tended to contract more ulcers, were more susceptible to heart attacks, and were more likely to be neurotic than those at the top of the alphabet. Weston is convinced that the pedagogue is the culprit. The inordinate amount of waiting that this group has to do causes them to become irascible and jittery.

Sloane did not want to perpetuate the disorders that stemmed from the alphabetical arrangement. He called it a compensatory factor to neutralize the catastrophic effects of the traditional policy. Soon, Mr. George Richmond, a Yale graduate who became a in the New York City school system, felt that elementary school youngsters could also be interested, even excited, about such issues. He experimented in his own classes with the Microsociety in which basic instruction takes place and is reinforced as pupils operate their own businesses, pass laws, live within the parameters of a constitution that they drafted, seek redress within their own judicial system, buy and sell real estate, and so on.

In the afternoon, the students apply what they learned in activities that run the from keeping double entry books, doing financial audits, running a bank, and conducting court sessions to engaging in light manufacture that leads to retail and wholesale commerce. Many primitive people believe that certain inanimate objects have a will of their own and possess some magical powers. These fetishes may be simple things like a particular feather of a bird or a unique pebble. The fetish might have derived its power, according to members of some tribes, from a god who lives within the object and has changed it into a thing of magic.

Fetishes need not only be natural objects, however. An artifact such as a sculpture or carving is also believed to possess supernatural powers. Sample Sentences Now use your new words in the following sentences. The explorers saw the golden statue and thought of how much money it would bring them. Definitions If you have studied the reading selection and the sample sentences, now try your hand at matching your new words with their definitions. Whereas the gods or supernatural powers merely inhabit an object that is a fetish and lend it magic, they will punish the imprudent native who violates their prohibition of an act or use of an object or word that has become taboo.

If a taboo has been broken, it becomes imperative for the offender to be punished. In many cases, however, the taint on the community may be removed after the priests have performed a special ceremony. Often, the violator of the taboo will be punished or die merely through his own fears of the terrible thing he has done. Sample Sentences Has the context in which your new words appear given you clues to their meaning? Try now to use them in these sample sentences. The health department refused to allow the soda to be sold.

Definitions Now is your chance to test your knowledge of your new words by matching them with their definitions. Since doctors tell us that excessive sun-tanning may be a cause of skin cancer, our strange yearning for sun-darkened skin has all the qualities of a fetish. Yet, how many were totally foreign several days ago? Keep up the good work now by using your new words in the following sentences.

Definitions Match your new words with their definitions. Although the tradition continues today, few people are aware of its history. A superstition originates in ignorance—when people are unsure of the causes of events. But it continues inviolable over the years because it usually represents our deepest fears. Sample Sentences Use these new words in the following sentences. This is the way language works. It is impossible to provide a one-word synonym or simple definition for a word that you will always be able to substitute for it. Therefore, in our weekly review we hope not only to check your learning, but also to teach you closely related meanings. Match the best possible definition with the word you studied. These words must be studied independently if you want to master them.

Use them in original sentences. Also, study the several different definitions a good dictionary provides for each of these problem words. Each time a country changes its name or its borders, there are some people who have their work cut out for them. They are the map makers—the cartographers. Has there ever been an border? Looking through an atlas of just a few years back, we realize it is simply an of an ever-changing world. If there is one thing for map makers to do, it is to realize how it is for them to keep abreast of world events. The study of world history is replete with exciting events that have shaken the economic and political past.

Geography is the physical rendering of these events. As history moves and changes our lives, it is up to the cartographer to take the lines of a map and shape the picture of this world in motion. A quick search of Google Earth brings our ever-changing planet to our screen. Perhaps the greatest volcanic eruption of modern times took place in when the island of Krakatoa in Indonesia blew up as the result of a volcanic explosion. New islands were formed by the lava that poured out, and debris was scattered across the Indian Ocean for hundreds of miles.

Volcanic material, dispersed seventeen miles into the atmosphere, created startlingly beautiful sunsets for years afterwards. Sample Sentences Relying on the contextual clues in the paragraph above, use the new words in the following sentences. After her house had burned to the ground, Mrs. Definitions Now take the final step in learning the new words. We are now faced with the deplorable prospect of new weapons that can cause destruction of life and property on a scale far beyond our imagination. No matter who takes the first step to initiate a conflict, the possibility exists that the conflagration will spread and envelop the world. Much thought has been given to ways and means of preventing this catastrophe.

Sample Sentences Use the new words in these sentences. Unfortunately, this congenial condition is fast disappearing. As our population increases, as industry consumes more water each year, the level of our underground water supply sinks measurably. There is no way to hoard water; there are many ways to conserve it. During a particularly dry spell, New York City found its reservoirs going dry. Only then did the residents begin to heed the sage advice to limit the wasteful uses of water. Under the aegis of the Water Commissioner, citizens were encouraged to develop habits that would save water. Reports of a man in Chile or a woman in Turkey who has celebrated the th or th birthday occur regularly. The natural question is, to what do these people owe their longevity?

Frequently, the answer concerns the fact that the ancient one liked to imbibe regularly of some hard liquor. The photograph will show an apparently virile man or robust woman. Somehow, people who reach this advanced age seem to remain eternally sturdy. There are no signs that they have become senile. Smoking a pipe, or sewing on some garment, these rare specimens of hardy humanity are far from the doddering folk we expect to see. Remember, in our language there may be many synonyms and related meanings for each word. Knowing one synonym is good, but you will reap greater benefits from knowing several. Below is the matching review for this week. These problem words can be mastered quickly if you write them down, look up their meanings, and practice using them.

When we lose sight of the fact that countless numbers of creatures have become extinct because their environment could no longer sustain them, then we ignore the possibility that these same changes could many species that we take for granted. Our life-style, and that of the billions of others on this earth, puts waste into the air and water. We may this careless behavior. While there may still be enough clean water and air for us, the loss of animals and plants can only be a to a good life for the generations that follow.

No one suggests that the solutions to our environmental problems are easy. The nations and people of the world are in competition for the limited riches of this planet. It will take the sagest and most dedicated leaders, under whose educated and concerned citizens will live and work, to protect the environment. The most prevalent of these is the mass media. Bearing this responsibility, the mass media are often accused of being remiss in their duty to inform the public. There has been a great deal of hostile comment leveled against these opinion molders. Sample Sentences Based upon your understanding of the new words as discovered from the context, use them in the spaces provided.

In many hundreds of papers this falls below two percent. Why is there this aversion to foreign news? Newsmen claim that readers evince no interest in foreign affairs. In order to increase reader interest in foreign news, the vogue among editors is to sensationalize it to the point of distortion. Many other papers do only the most superficial kind of reporting in this area. The editor must include or jettison items as he sees fit. It is inevitable that his ideas of what the reader want to know, or should know, are decisive. Because the newspaper owners do not want to endanger a lucrative business, there is the constant tussle between personal opinion and the desire not to offend too many readers or advertisers. It is intrinsic to the operation of all mass media that they avoid being extremist in their news coverage or editorials.

A normal broadcast can cover only a small part of a news day. The object is to transmit the gist of a story without supplying its background. Another difficulty of electronic news broadcasting is its transient nature; the viewers or listeners may miss an important story if their attention wanders. On the other hand, because radio and television present news in a more terse and exciting way, they are accepted as the most cogent presentation of news and are preferred and believed above newspapers by most people. Sample Sentences A slow and thorough study is needed today. Before the game players spend as much time as possible taking their batting practice. During the game the batter concentrates on every pitch. At least that is the belief. The real Billy the Kid, William Bonney, is believed to have escaped and lived for many years in Texas.

When Roberts died in , there was the question about his true identity. As a result, a computer was brought in to test whether there was anything other than a resemblance between the two men. A photo of the Kid and a photo of Roberts were compared on the computer. In a report from the computer technician, the identity of Roberts was proved to be different from that of the real Billy the Kid. Thus, computer analysis allows us to the idea that Billy the Kid survived the famous gun duel.

Every leading nation produced its share of great composers. There was a bewildering array of national schools and musical styles as the once obscure musician came into his own. Music became a widespread and democratic art. The ardent music lover turned to Vienna as the music center at the beginning of the nineteenth century. However, Paris was not far behind, especially in the field of operatic music. The growth of German music can be said to have culminated with Ludwig van Beethoven. Sample Sentences Take command of the new words in these sentences. Definitions Match-up time for new words and definitions. He was a child prodigy who held an important musical post at the age of He was a successful concert pianist, but when his health began to fail he turned to composing.

Even though bereft of hearing at the age of 49, he did not falter in his work. Definitions Your personal test follows through matching. They heaped invective upon him for the intensely emotional quality and Germanic style of his writings. However, it was impossible to besmirch his talents for long, and he was soon one of the most popular composers in Europe. He produced voluminous varieties of compositions. Today, in retrospect, his originality is appreciated, and he is placed among the top romantic composers. Sample Sentences Complete the following sentences with the new words. Definitions Study the paragraph and sample sentences for the meanings. He had an extremely lofty opinion of himself and his talents.

He was not noted for his humility. Along with this quality, Brahms was known for his pungent sense of humor. While his closest friends could accept his biting jokes, others found him difficult to warm up to. Brahms was an inveterate stay-at-home. Cambridge University conferred an honorary degree upon him, but he was adamant about staying at home and did not go to receive the honor. Definitions Make the new words yours through the match-ups. Review the paragraph, sample sentence, definition, and then write your own sentence using the word.

In the year was a year of record high temperatures across the United States. The cause of this problem is complex. There are many proposed explanations, from an increase of population to the greenhouse effect. If, in fact, temperatures are continuing to rise as a result of human activity, there should be an search for the causes and the cures. Scientists are looking into even the most aspects of modern society to determine what might be the long-range effects of our activities. They hope that investigations will in a program to change the harmful ways we contribute to a dangerous trend.

We should not in our efforts to avoid such disasters. There is the bedlam caused by the roaring motors that move the car from a standing start to miles an hour in eight seconds. One is shaken by the cacophony of the brakes, larger than the wheels and producing during the course of a mile race enough heat to warm an eight-room house through a hard winter. The driver needs to be on the alert to exploit any mistake by an opponent, and he must be constantly aware of the propinquity of sudden death. All of this makes car racing one of the most demanding games of all. How was your recall today? Did you spot vulnerable as a reintroduced word? Sample Sentences Use the new words in the sentences.

Definitions Match your new words to their definitions. The creative individual is usually one who is dissatisfied with things as they are; he wants to bring something new into the world—to make it a different place. There is no infallible way to identify a potentially creative person. The speed-up in the sciences has forced schools and industry to seek a panacea for the shortages that they face. The need to discover and develop the creative person has been the source of much study. The slow rhythm of life is even seen in the barges on the canals and the bicycles on the roads. These people are moved by strong feelings that are not compatible with the serenity of the world around them.

The envy also of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim. They shall ask the way to Zion with their faces hitherward, saying Come, and let us join ourselves to the Lord in a perpetual covenant that shall not be forgotten. My people hath been lost sheep: Their Shepherds have caused them to go astray, they have turned them away on the mountains: they have gone from mountain to hill, they have forgotten their resting place.

That good thing promised is the putting away of our sins by the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ and His return to take unto Himself the throne of His father David, "for the government shall be upon His shoulders and of the increase and peace of His government there shall be no end. Palestine to the Jews. To restore, means to them, to bring back to a former state. Our blind political leaders will discover, to their sorrow, that they have made a promise they can never fulfill. Many of you wouldn't dare insist that Esau be given the birthright after he had been dispossessed. Yet you continue to support the Jew, both morally and financially, in his futile attempts to regain something which was taken from him [23]. By doing so you prolong the suffering of the Jews and just might possibly bring the judgment of God upon your own head to your sorrow and loss, while the Jews goes to the slaughter in his vain attempts to "establish the vision.

We have found Israel under the leadership of Ephraim and Manasseh, not the Jews. We have identified Israel by their marks, by the things they are doing and the position they hold in the world. The two sons of Joseph inherited the birthright and the name of Israel [25]. They are a great multitude in the earth, a nation and company of nations; possessing the gates of their enemies. They have His Name. Remember that by the mouth of two or more witnesses shall every word be established. True love exhorts, rebukes, reproves and warns of dangers ahead and endeavors to win those outside of Christ. Are The Jews Israel? The popular aversion to the subject of race has contributed much to the prevailing blindness regarding the ethnic antecedents of the Jews.

This is most evident throughout the organized church where any suggestion that race could be a factor in the plans and purposes of God is anathema. This has brought about a strange paradox. The plain Bible teaching that the Lord God has "A Chosen People" is denied; if not in so many words, then by silently ignoring the numerous references regarding "the children of Jacob His chosen. He well knew of the Idumean Herod's plot to slay Him as the Christ child, and He knew the identity of those who still sought to kill Him in order to usurp His Kingship as the legitimate Heir to the Throne of David. When Jesus' ministry was about to end, He left the safe environments of Galilee to confront the Jews in Jerusalem.

To those who believed on Him, Jesus said:. If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed; And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free. We be Abraham's seed, and were never in bondage to any man: how sayest thou, Ye shall be made free? Jesus knew they were the descendants of Esau. He characterized them as hypocrites:. If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets. Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed the prophets. Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers. Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city: That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar.

These are not, in any sense, synonymous terms. Once these distinctions are clearly understood, one can begin to grasp the enormity of the deception on the part of "those who call themselves Jews" by assuming the mantle of Israel. According to the common belief, all that survived of the twelve tribes was the remnant of Judah which was taken captive to Babylon and eventually, they say, returned intact to Jerusalem. This grossly mistaken concept ignores many factors; particularly that the vast majority of Judahites were also taken to Assyria to follow the path of their Israelite kinsmen in the great migration westward to settle the Isles and the Northern Coastlands of Europe. About this same period, B. All of these children of Israel became part of the great migration to the appointed place, north and west of Palestine.

Only "the inhabitants of Jerusalem" within the city walls escaped the Assyrian conquests. What remained of this shattered remnant of Judah was further decimated while captive in Babylon. Little if any account is taken of the proselytes to Judaism who joined them during the captivity. After seventy years, as many as desired to go were allowed to return to Jerusalem.

This number included some of the remnant of Judah and the tribe of Benjamin, and the royal descendants of David, as well as a few of the tribe of Levi. With them came many of the proselytes who were Hittites, Canaanites and Edomites; and among these were descendants of Ishmael and Esau who pressed the claim that Abraham was their father and thrust their company upon the returning remnant. When they returned from Babylon, certain ones of the House of Judah and some of the priests intermarried with the inhabitants of the land and these intermarriages were severely condemned by Ezra and Nehemiah [37]. While there were other admixtures in Judah, these forbidden marriages were mainly with Hittites of the former Canaanite empire.

In time, this merging of Judahites with Hittites became identified as one of the racial types called "Jews. Sabeans : The inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Sheba in southeastern Arabia, known from the Bible, classical writers, and native inscriptions. There seem, therefore, to have been three stocks of Sabeans: one in Africa [42] , and the other two in Arabia. Of the latter one is connected with the story of Abraham, and the other with that of the kingdom localized by Genesis , including the Joktanites generally, and extending "from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar, a mount of the east.

The Psalms and the prophetical books lay special emphasis upon the wealth and commercial activity of the Sabeans. The gifts of the kings of Sheba and of Seba to Solomon are noted in Psalm , gold being especially mentioned among these presents [45]. In both these passages the Septuagint, followed by the Vulgate, identifies Sheba with Arabia Isaiah adds incense to the gifts which these countries were to bring [46]. The wealth of Sheba is indicated also by the list of the gifts brought by its queen to Solomon, and which were 'a hundred and twenty talents of gold, and of spices very great store, and precious stones: there came no more such abundance of spices as these which the Queen of Sheba gave to King Solomon.

The only mention of the Sabeans is a warlike connection is in Job , where they are described as attacking and killing the servants of Job to rob them of cattle; but according to Joel 4. In the New Testament there is a reference to the kingdom of Sheba in the allusion to "the queen of the south" [49]. Sheba must be carefully distinguished from the Cushite or African Seba [50] , as is shown by the discrimination between the "kings of Sheba and Seba. Strabo, basing his account for the most part on Eratosthenes, an author of the third century B. Their territory was situated between those of the Mineans and Cattabanes; and their capital, Mariaba, stood on the summit of a wooded hill.

The country, like those adjoining, was a flourishing monarchy, with beautiful temples and palaces, and with houses which resembled those of the Egyptians. The mode of succession to the throne was peculiar in that the heir apparent was not the son of the king, but the first son born to a noble after the monarch's accession. The king himself was also the judge; but he was not allowed to leave the palace under penalty of being stoned to death by the people. They cover, it is true, a period of about 1, years, ceasing only with the extinction of the kingdom in the sixth century C. Besides the epigraphical remains, there is a large number of coins, dating chiefly from B.

These are of special value for the history of the nation, even during its period of decline, since they bear both the monograms and the names of numerous kings. The Sabean inscriptions are dated by eponymous magistrates previous to the introduction of an era which has been identified with the Seleucidan B. These texts frequently allude to commerce, agriculture, and religion. The chief articles of trade are the same as those mentioned in the Bible and the classics, with the addition of horses and camels. The agricultural texts are chiefly prayers for increase in crops and live stock, with the inevitable petition of the Semite for male offspring. The military texts, in their accounts of successful raids on and repulses of other marauding tribes, confirm the allusion in Job The references to religion are for the most part names of deities; but the entire lack of description renders a reconstruction of the Semitic pantheon practically impossible.

Among the Sabean gods the most important were Almakah 'the hearing god? To the account of the government as described by Strabo the Sabean inscriptions add little. The word for 'nation' is 'khums' fifth , which apparently implies an earlier division of Arabia or of a portion of it into five parts; and the people were divided into tribes shi'b , which, in their turn, were composed of 'tenths' or 'thirds. There were likewise kings of a number of minor cities.

From a late text which mentions a king of Himyar and Raidan and of Saba and Silhin, it has been inferred that the capital of Sheba was later removed to Raidan while the actual palace remained at Himyar, and that from this circumstance the dynasty and all that it ruled were formerly called Himyaritic the 'Homeritae' of Ptolemy and of Christian ecclesiastical authors , a designation now generally discarded. The state of society in Sheba seems to have been somewhat feudal to character. The great families, which evidently possessed large landed estates, had castles and towers that are frequently mentioned in the inscriptions; and remains of some of these buildings are still extant. The status of woman was remarkably high. The mistress of a castle is mentioned in one inscription, and the epigraphical remains represent women as enjoying practical equality with men, although a few passages imply the existence of concubinage.

The Sabean language belonged to the Semitic stock. While some of the inscriptions differ little from classical Arabic, most of them show a close affinity with Ethiopic. The weak letters occasionally possessed their consonant value as in Ethiopic, although they have become vowels in Arabic. The alphabet, which, like all the Semitic systems except Ethiopic, represents the consonants only, is plausibly regarded by man as the earliest form of Semitic script.

When Nebuchadnezzar carried the "good fig" Judahites with Jeconiah and the princes of Judah to Babylon [53] , the "evil fig" residue of Jerusalem was left under Zedekiah who reigned in Jerusalem for eleven years as Nebuchadnessar's puppet king. The appellation, "Jew," is a relatively recent term in Old Testament history. The word, Jew, first appears in 2 Kings , in our English language Bibles as a slang contraction of the Hebrew, Yehudim, meaning "of Judah. During the captivity, many of the Babylonians who became proselytes to Judaism adopted the name, Diaspora, or "dispersion of the Jews," but they were neither of Judahite nor Israelite ancestry.

In Juda, what became known as "the nation of the Jews" consisted of the proselytes to Judaism who had swelled their numbers in Babylon. Judaism had Nothing to do with the Hebrew Religion. There were further mutations in Jewry. One occurred about B. Another took place in Queen Esther's time in the Persian Kingdom when "many of the people of the land became Jews; for the fear of the Jews fell upon them. So great was the number and influence of these interlopers that, during Jesus' ministry, He found them "sitting in Moses' seat," i. By the end of the tenth century A. These Ashkenazim of Eastern Europe and the Sephardim of the Mediterranean basin have been recognized for over a thousand years as two sharply contrasted physical types within the Jewish fold.

Together they comprise the major part of world Jewry. However, today, Judaism embraces many other peoples including such diverse races as the Black Jews of Malabar and Ethiopia and the Mongoloid Jews of China. The Appellation, Jew, has been broadened to include Anyone of Whatever Race or Nationality Who Accepts the Faith of Judaism or who, without formal religious affiliation, regards the traditions of Judaism; its ethics, its folkways, its literature, as their own.

The vast majority of Judah who, like their kinsmen in Israel, were taken captive by the Assyrians were Never known as "Jews" nor had they been called "Jews" while in Palestine. While the children of Israel disappeared for a time from the pages of history, The Jews have always known who they were and the World has never been allowed to lose sight of them! Because they have always sought to destroy Christians and Christianity whenever possible.

The following Jewish attacks on Christianity are taken from the February, issue of the "Christian Vanguard. Supreme court. He said "The ADL was working throughout the South to make integration possible as quickly as possible. The Jews obtained an injunction and planned to take the case before the U. Supreme Court. The answer is given in a Court case by a Jewess Lois N. Milman, If Christians would only listen and observe! Jewess Lois N. Milman, objected to discussing God in the Miami schools because the talk was about " A God that is not my god. Remember the Jews claim that the first five books of the Bible is also their Bible. Do you begin to see what liars they are? The drug was manufactured at the Wiseman Institute in Israel.

Post Office Department about a stamp to be issued representing Christianity. The P. Department withdrew the stamp design to please the Jews. Where the hell are our so-called Christian Ministers? That's right in their pulpits, on television and radio crying out for more money and letting these antichrist perverts go on blaspheming Almighty God the the Lord Jesus Christ; While they suck up after these Satanic Creeps! They complain Jewish girls will not date them on Religious grounds if they are not circumcised I Wonder if a Jewish boy has to show the Jewish girls his Privy Member before he asks her for a date? Godwin removed from the bench because "his Christian religious beliefs color the manner in which he dispenses justice.

Rabbi Marc Tannenbaum congratulated Episcopal Bishop Allin for "his historic act of respect for Judaism and friendship for the Jewish people. Cemeteries were normally closed to burials on legal holidays. However, since the Jews bury their dead quickly after death they are now forcing cemeteries to make special rules for them. Jews have been instrumental in having Christian Crosses removed from graves in Veterans Cemeteries because the crosses "offend them.

So they sent him to the Israeli State. Alice Ginott said, " Jews borrow the style if not the substance of Christmas and, believing they can Take The Christian Religion out of Christmas, create an artificial holiday for their children Hanukkah symbolizes the Jewish people's struggle to maintain their spiritual racial identity against superior forces. The Jews claim they are offended by the idea of having to say they believe in Jesus Christ and yet want to force their way into the Christian Directories. It is unfortunate, indeed, that the Christian clergy seems to be ignorant of, or apathetic to this plot to destroy everything they say they stand for as Christians.

In fact, in many instances, they stand behind their pulpits and defend and support the very people who are pledged to destroy them. There is no doubt that thousands of Christian "Ministers" are deeply disturbed by the mysterious pressures from above, which often prevent them from exercising sound judgment. One outstanding Fundamentalist pastor, a leader in the Moral Majority, recently admitted to Lt. Gordon "Jack" Mohr:. But all the great Bible scholars and preachers of the Twentieth Century have said they were God's Chosen People, so I will have to go along with them. May God have mercy on us when we use this as the Criteria for Whether we are right or wrong! The greatest spiritual teacher of all time, our Lord Jesus Christ, spoke to the Jewish religious leaders of His time in no uncertain terms:.

He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it. Does this sound like the Jews are the "Chosen People" to you? If they had been true Israelites, they could not have said this, since any bible Scholar knows the Israelites spent over years in Egypt, many of which Were in Bondage. Yet their leaders told Jesus:. My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me: And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish. He warned them of:. Most of the confusion in the minds of Christians is unwarranted and unjustified. With so many of our clergymen allies with their enemies it is no wonder we see spiritual sabotage on every hand.

It is no wonder that millions of potential "front line" soldiers for Jesus Christ have become spiritual cowards; who hide in their spiritual foxholes, praying for Christ to return and rapture them out of the mess They Are Responsible For. Remember Jesus said:. The will of God goes a lot farther than knocking on doors and inviting someone to attend church; it goes farther than telling them about the love of God and the way to salvation. It means "front line duty" in the battle that rages.

To stop this spiritual surrender, we are going to have to have an "about face" on the part of our clergy. Christian organizations, such as the Moral Majority, will never reach their full potential, until their leaders will willingly and honestly point out who their enemies really are. Freedman puts his finger squarely on one of the major church problems when he told Dr. Most competent Bible historians will admit that at no time in the New Testament is Jesus ever called a Jew and that, during His sojourn on earth, He was called a "Judean" by His contemporaries.

He was also called a "Nazarene" and a "Galilean" but the Nazarenes or Galileans are Not given such a glowing account! The church historian, Theoplylact, writing in A. Authorities on Latin will tell you this inscription means: "Jesus the Nazarene, ruler of the Judeans. Christ was crucified, by the Jews, not because of any guilt on His part. With the exception of a few of His followers, most of the Jews abhorred His teachings. There were only faithful ones in the "upper room" on the Day of Pentecost [78]. The fact that Jesus was never called a Jew, or was known by this name, cannot be erased by the "wishful thinking" of our theologians, no matter how hard they try to back the Jews.

There is no factual foundation in history or theology, which would allow the word used by Pilate to describe Jesus as a Jew. During the time of Christ, at no place in the world, was there a religion known as "Jewish. Countless intelligent and informed Christians no longer accept unchallenged assertions by the Christian clergy that Jesus in His lifetime was a Member of a group in Judea which practiced a religious form of worship then known as "The Tradition of the Elders" and now know as "Judaism," or that Jesus in His lifetime here on earth was a Member of the racial group which today includes the preponderant majority of All The "Jews" In The World, or that the "Jews" throughout the world today are the lineal descendants of the nation in Judea of which Jesus was a national in His lifetime here on earth, or that the cultural characteristics of the "Jews" throughout the world today correspond with the cultural characteristics of Jesus during His lifetime here on earth and His teachings while He was here on earth for a brief stay.

Christians, who follow the Lord's Commandment to study to make themselves approved, will no longer believe that the race religion, nationality and culture of Jesus and the race, religion, nationality and culture of the "Jews" today or their ancestors have a common origin or character. The resentment by Christians is more ominous than the Christian clergy suspect. Under existing conditions the Christian clergy will find ignorance is not bliss, nor wisdom folly. Christians everywhere are today beginning to learn the authentic relationship between the "Jews" throughout the world today and the "Judeans" who populated "Judea" before, during and after the time of Christ.

Christians now insist that they be told correctly by the Christian clergy about the racial, religious, national and cultural background of the "Jews" throughout the world today and the basis for associating these backgrounds with the racial, religious, national and cultural background of Jesus in His lifetime in Judea. The intelligent and informed Christians are alerted to the exploded myth that the "Jews" throughout the world today are the direct descendants of the "Judeans" amongst whom Jesus lived during His lifetime here on earth.

Many Christians today are becoming more and more alerted day by day why the "Jews" throughout the world for three centuries have spent uncounted sums of money to manufacture the fiction that the "Judeans" in the time of Jesus were "Jews" rather than "Judeans," and that "Jesus was a Jew. They emphasize this Fiction to Christians constantly. But that Fable is Fast Fading. To allege that "Jesus was a Jew" in the sense that during His lifetime Jesus professed and practiced the form of religious worship known and practiced under the modern name of "Judaism" is false and fiction of the most blasphemous nature. At that time in history the area of the Roman Empire included a part of the Middle East. In the time of Pontius Pilate in History there was no religious, racial or national group in Judea known as "Jews" nor had there been any group so identified anywhere else in the World prior to that time.

Pontius Pilate expressed little interest as the administrator of the Roman Empire officially or personally in the wide variety of forms of religious worship then practiced in Judea. These forms of religious worship extended from phallic worship and other forms of idolatry to the emerging spiritual philosophy of an eternal, omnipotent and invisible Divine deity, the emerging Yahve Jehovah concept which predated Abraham of bible fame by approximately 2, years. As the administrator for the Roman Empire in Judea it was the official policy of Pontius Pilate never to interfere in the spiritual affairs of the local population. Pontius Pilate's primary responsibility was the collection of taxes to be forwarded home to Rome, not the forms of religious worship practiced by the Judeans from whom those taxes were collected.

The Latin word "rex" means "ruler or leader" in English. During the lifetime of Jesus in Judea the Latin word "rex" meant only that to Judeans familiar with the Latin language. The Latin word "rex" is the Latin verb "rego, regere, rexi, rectus" in English means "to rule, to lead. This fact accounts for the inscription on the Cross in Latin. The adoption of "king" for "rex" at this late date in British history did not retroactively alter the meaning of the Latin "rex" to the Judeans during the time of Christ. The Latin "rex" to them then meant only "ruler, leader" as it still means in Latin.

During the lifetime of Jesus it was very apparent to Pontius Pilate that Jesus was the very Last Person in Judea the Pharisees or scribes would select as their "ruler" or their "leader. If one is to be honest, it is Utterly Impossible to give any other English translation to "Iudaeorum" than "of the Judeans. At the time Pontius Pilate was ordering the "Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum" inscribed upon the Cross the spiritual leaders of Judea The Jews were protesting to Pontius Pilate "not to write Jesus was the ruler of the Judeans" but to inscribe instead that Jesus "had said that He was the ruler of the Judeans. These protests are a matter of historical record, as you know, if you have read the account of the Crucifixion in the Bible.

In the Greek original there is no equivalent for the English that Jesus "had said that He was the ruler of the Judeans. The English "ruler," or its alternative "leader," define the sense of Latin "rex" and Greek "basileus" as they were used in the Greek and Latin Gospel by John. Pontius Pilate "washed his hands" of the blood of Jesus and the protests by the spiritual leaders Jews in Judea who demanded of him that the inscription on the Cross authored by Pontius Pilate be corrected in the manner they insisted upon. Pontius Pilate very impatiently replied to their demands "What I have written, I have written.

The Inscriptions on the Cross. Since the inscriptions on the cross has been brought up. We will try to explain the questions that the atheists and agnostics continually bring up, when tormenting baby Christians; those who have only recently accepted Christ. And in all too many occasions, older Christians who, after accepting Christ, simply sat back and never learned anything else. Each of the four Gospels gives a Different wording of these inscriptions:.

Here again the difficulty is created by assuming that these Similar but differing records are Identical, without noticing the exact words which are written. It is universally assumed that there was only One, and then follow the efforts to explain the alleged "discrepancies" between the different version of it. Mark can be dismissed; for he does not say anything about a "title" [81] being put on the cross or anywhere else, which any one had seen.

It is a question of the Lord's "accusation" or "indictment," or the ground or cause of His condemnation as claiming to be "the King of the Jews. John speaks of a "title" written by Pilate, Before it Left Pilate's Presence; for no one suggests that Pilate went to the scene of the execution and wrote anything there. He had already "washed" his hands over the affair. In Pilate's writing the three languages were in this order: 1 Hebrew, 2 Greek, and 3 Latin cp. D below. And it was read After the Cross had been set up. This was the one which gave rise to the argument between the Chief Priests The Jews and Pilate [82] and this argument took place before the parting of the garments v.

Matthew was the result of that discussion; for another "title" was brought and was "set up over his head," After they had "Parted His Garments ," and having sat down, they watched Him there v. As there could hardly have been two titles at the same time, the former must have been taken down and the other substituted. We are not told how long the argument lasted or when it ceased, or what was the final result of it. Luke a further result is seen for another was brought much later, close upon "the sixth hour" v.

It was written with the languages in a different order: 1 Greek, 2 Latin, and 3 Hebrew v. It was put up "over Him" Gr ep' auto, v. C was set up Before the Revilings [83]. Matthew's was the Second, substituted for the first, in consequence of the arguments which took place, and was set up "over His head" After the garments had been divided, and Before the revilings. Luke's was the Third and last , put up "over Him," After the revilings [84] , and was seen just before the darkness of the "sixth hour" v.

This was written in three languages but in a different order: 1 Greek, 2 Latin, and 3 Hebrew v. Not in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin, as No. B in John Thus, such differences as these are marks of Divine accuracy; and, instead of being sources of difficulties, become, when rightly divided, the means of their removal. Jerome's Vulgate Edition. Of that there is no longer any doubt. It is an acknowledge fact the word "Jew" did not appear in the English language until Prior to that time, it did not exist in any language on earth. It was introduced into the English language in a play The Raven written by an English playwright named Sheridan.

It was completely unknown to Shakespeare nor was it known to the translators of the King James Version of the Bible in Contrary to popular opinion, Shakespeare wrote his "Merchant of Venice," V. III i. To go back a bit further, the word "Jew" does not appear in the version of the Douay Bible, the official translation of the Roman Catholic Church. But it does appear in both that version and the King James Version, when they were revised late in the 18th Century. As we have stated, the word "Jew" was first introduced into the English language in the 18th century and its one and only implication, inference and innuendo at that time was "Judean.

The "secondary meaning" of the word "Jew" today bears as little relation to its original and correct meaning as the "secondary meaning" today for the word "camel" bears to the original and correct meaning of the world "camel," or the "secondary meaning" today for the word "ivory" bears to the original and correct meaning of the word "Ivory. While the "secondary meaning" of the word "ivory" today is a piece or box of soap whereas its original and correct meaning, the tusk of a male elephant. The "secondary meanings" of words often become the Generally Accepted meanings of words formerly having entirely different meanings. So today if you ask for a "camel" someone will hand you a cigarette by that name.

Today if you ask for a piece of "ivory" someone will hand you a piece or a box of soap by that name. You will never receive either a desert animal or a piece of the tusk of a male elephant; unless you specifically state that is what you want. We believe this illustrates the extent to which "secondary meanings" are able to practically eclipse the original and correct meanings of words in the minds of the general public.

The "secondary meaning" for the word "Jew" today has totally eclipsed the original and correct meaning of the word Jew when it was introduced as a word to the English language. There can be no doubt about that! But that was the correct and Only meaning in the 18th century. The present generally accepted "secondary meaning" of the word "Jew" is fundamentally responsible for the confusion in the minds of Christians regarding elementary tenets of the Christian faith.

It is likewise responsible today to a very great extent for the dilution of the devotion of the countless Christians for their Christian faith. The implications, inferences and innuendoes of the word "Jew" today, to the preponderant majority of intelligent and informed Christians, is contradictory and in complete conflict with incontestable historic fact. Christians who cannot be fooled any longer are suspect of the Christian Clergy who continue to repeat, and repeat, and repeat ad nauseam their pet theme song "Jesus was a Jew. Remarking about what took place in , some Rhode Island Jews were overheard to say, in regards to the White American peoples' attitude about Jesus Christ, as their King:.

We shall never be able to do anything with them, until we root out that cursed Puritanic spirit! This was in response to such statements as the one made by governor, Jonathan Trumbull of Connecticut, who spoke out openly in defense of freedom:. He will tell you he has none, nor any governor but Jesus Christ. The Jews are the most Deadly Enemy they have ever faced; The Jews are responsible for the outright murder of uncounted millions of Christians over the past 2, years; The Jews are even now working day and night to destroy this Great Christian Nation: The United States of America!

In respect to the Civil War, we will begin with several quotes from a book written in the last century. It is under those bloody banners that 6, Roman Catholic priests, Jesuits and bishops, in the United States, are marching to the conquest of this republic, backed by their seven millions of blind and obedient slaves. Those laws, which are still the ruling laws of Rome, were the main cause of the last rebellion of the Southern States. Without Romanism, the last awful Civil War would have been impossible. Jeff Davis would never have dared to attack the North, had he not had assurance from the Pope, that the Jesuits, the bishops, the priests and the whole people of the Church of Rome, under the name and mask of democracy, would help him.

Those bloody and infernal laws of Rome nerved the arm of the Roman Catholic, Booth a Jew , when he slaughtered one of the ignoble man in the history of America to that time. Under the mask and name of democracy which is in all reality Judaism they have raised the standard of rebellion of the South against the North, and caused more than half a million of the most heroic sons of America to fall on the fields of carnage. In the very near future, if God does not miraculously prevent it, those laws of dark deeds and blood will cause the prosperity, the rights, the education, and the liberties of this too confident nation to be buried under the mountain of smoking and bloody ruins.

On the top of that mountain, Rome Judaism through the rule of the Black Pope will raise her throne and plant her victorious banners. Though there were differences of opinion between the South and the North, on the question of slavery, neither Jeff Davis nor anyone of the leading men of the Confederacy would have dared to attack the North, had they not relied on the Promises of the Jesuits the Jews , that I conceal what I know, for if the people knew the whole truth, this war would turn into a religious war, and at once, take a tenfold more savage and bloody character. It would become merciless as all religious wars are.

It would become a war of extermination on both sides. The Protestants of both the North and South would surely unite to exterminate the Priests and Jesuits, if they could hear what Professor Morse has said to me of the plots made in the very city of Rome to destroy this Republic, and if they could learn how the Priests, the Nuns, and the Monks, which daily land on our shores, under the pretext of preaching their religion, instructing the people in their schools, taking care of the sick in the hospitals, are nothing but the emissaries of the Pope, of Napoleon and the other despots of Europe, to undermine our institutions, alienate the hearts of our people from our Constitution and our laws, destroy our schools, and prepare a reign of anarchy here as they have done in Ireland, in Mexico, in Spain and wherever there are any people who want to be free New projects of assassination are detected almost every day, accompanied with such savage circumstances that they bring to my memory the massacre of St.

Bartholomew and the Gunpowder Plot. Our investigation indicates that they come from the same masters in the art of murder, the Jesuits. The New York riots were evidently a Romish plot from beginning to end. We have the proofs in hand that they were the work of Bishop Hughes and his emissaries. No doubt can remain about the bloody attempts of Rome to destroy New York, when we know the easy way it was stopped. I wrote to Bishop Hughes, telling him that the whole country would hold him responsible for it if he would not stop it at once. He then gathered the rioters around his palace, called them his 'dear friends,' invited them to go back home peacefully, and all was finished!

From the beginning of our civil war, there has been, not a secret, but a public alliance, between the Pope of Rome and Jeff Davis. They are helping him on the sea by guiding and supporting the rabid Roman Catholic pirate, Semmes, on the ocean The pope has thrown away the mask, and shown himself the public partisan and the protector of the rebellion, by taking Jeff Davis by the hand, and impudently recognizing the Southern States as a legitimate government. Such is the perfidity of those Jesuits Jews. Under the guiding hand of Judah P. Benjamin a Jew , chosen by the Rothschilds and the Church of Rome to represent the International Bankers, to do their work for them in the United States, was also the first advisor to Jefferson Davis, the President of the Southern Confederacy.

Benjamin is reputed to be the "brains of the revolt," as he was also the Secretary of State of the Confederacy. Through the hands of this man, huge sums of money were provided to finance the destruction of this great New Christian American Republic flowed. The Confederacy fell and the men who had fought a valiant fight for what they believed right were thrown into the even greater travail of the Reconstruction; while Judah P. Benjamin, almost alone of the leaders of the South, forsook immediately the suffering people Who had Honored and Enriched Him, fled to England and was soon embarked upon a new career of distinction and wealth, Reminiscent of others of his religion Jewish dispossessed of their temporary cause and gains.

That the plot of Booth, involved not only the assassination of Lincoln, which was accomplished, but also the assassination on the same night of the Vice President, Andrew Johnson, of the Secretary of State, William H. Seward, and of General Ulysses S. Seward, who was ill at his home, was stabbed, as was also his son, Frederick Seward, by David E. Atzerodt also a Jew was hanged for conspiring with Booth to kill him. General Grant, who was to have attended the theater with Lincoln that night, due to an unexpected departure for Burlington, New Jersey, was unharmed. In London the refugees had continued their trade and free thinking, and John had married Wilkes' cousin. American Civil War and Captivity. Not a physical conquest and captivity by foreign armies, but by stealthy encroachments against its founding legal principles, superseding them with new laws.

Yet this is still a conflict. It is a conflict that seeks to conquer America and its people just as sure and complete as any physical captivity could have achieved. Like Ancient Israel, America's adversaries and captors were foreign aliens, however, they did not attack America from outside its boarders but from within them. This enemy was none other than an elite group of alien Jewish money powers who had gained financial control over Europe and now wished to likewise financially conquer America.

Through the use of large banks, usury, loans, and commodity manipulation, the Jews were able to control the political arena in Europe. Their conspiratorial plan for America was to repeat this modus operandi through which they could form a "new order" of law and government. The whole country is still paying for that evil Satanic war [90]. It is still difficult to speak or write about it without angering someone, blacks, Northerners, or Southerners. Many people have been reluctant to argue over that unpleasant subject but unwilling to be silent when there was a need to speak, have told Northerners that it was less a moral concern and more economic and sectional hatred that governed the North.

The rhetoric of a sizeable minority, mostly Jews, the Abolitionists, was anti-Christian and Unitarian. They were intensely interested in destroying the South, and their moral claims were questionable. The Southerners were also ready to allow, as did the Northerners, the extremists and hotheads to lead the way into an unrealiztic war. The war came when the churches were at a low ebb theologically, although the South saw a major revival among the troops during the war.

While the South was stauchly Christian, its leaders, especially secessionists, who were also mostly Jews, were not. Some significant facts must be remembered about the South. Savage called attention to a neglected fact: "Of the hundred and thirty anti-slavery societies organized in the country, more than two thirds were in the South. First, slavery was a very present fact to all Southerners. Second, Puritan faith had then centered in the South and deeply resented by Unitarians, strongly influenced many Southerners, although not very many of their politicians. Third, only one of sixteen Southerners owned eve a single slave.

Some of the fifteen Southerners could not afford it. Others were against slavery. Other than South Carolina, Southern states favored abolition provided that the slaves could be repatriated somewhere, and, with some, their owners compensated. Fourth, many Southerners resented the power and pride of the slave-owning aristocracy. Even then, secession was not popular when first propounded by John C. Calhoun was a Northerner by education, a Yale man whose goal was to have Yale educate his sons. Calhoun would not join the church, nor profess Christianity, nor even join the Moral Society.

In the classroom, his disavowal of Christianity was open. Although he attended his wife's Episopal Church when in the South, he bluntly announced on one occasion, "Unitarianism is the only true faith and will ultimately prevail over the world. Calhoun's perspective was important. More than a few prominent Southerners sought their education in New England colleges which were openly or tacitly Unitarian. The Timothy Dwights of the early years could not stem the tide.

Unitarian and Transcendentalist thinking was either Hegelian or shared common roots with Hegel. Such thinking represented a major intellectual revolution in Europe with deep roots in the Enlightenment. Hegel best expressed the think of his and the previous era, namely, a radical belief in the conflict of interestts. With the French Revolution, the Western world entered into the Age of Revolution, which is very much with us still. As against the Biblical Faith in an ultimate harmy of interests for the Godly [97] , this new belief was in a radical conflict of interests. Thus, the way to progress was revolutionary violence to establish justice, and hostile confrontations to resolve problems.

Not moral suasion but bitter conflict was seen as the ethical course of action. This faith marked the Abolitionists in the North, most of whom were Unitarian. In the South, Unitarianism was not an organized ecclesiastical or intellectual cause as much as the tact premise of the secessionist leaders. Calvinist leaders in that cause were at the best rare. However, Enlightenment premises were popular among gentlemen, and these persons were receptive to the Unitarian developments there of. The secessionist leaders were not Calvinists, and they did share in the growing and tacit Unitarian8ism of the leaders of the day. Those men, North and South, who were not Christian, were not thereby neutral but rather were deeply influenced by a common media that prevailed in all of the United States.

That media represented the culture of Enlightenment humanism. The philosophy of the modern era began with Descartes, whose "cognito, ergo sum," I think, therefore I am, was the starting point of philosophical inquiry. The Carthesian premise at once created a division in man's perspective between body and soul, between perceptions and reality, and between the inner and the outer worlds so that the concern was to bridge two realms. With Kant, the real world became the realm of the mind, and the reality was what the philosophical [98] mind declared it to be.

Thus, the real world was not the creation of God but the creation of the philosopher's mind. But what if some refuse to recognize that reality is what they define as real? What if, as with the Abolitionists, the reality is human freedom for all? Or if adherents of slavery see it as a condition inherent to slavery? What happens then? Without God and His law, man's recourse is to himself, or to his creature, the state. Reality is then not God, nor His created order and His law; it is instead what man declared is right the new reality is man's declared law, and the non-Christians in both North and South had their own vision of the right and the real. God was not in their picture. To read through the editionh of John C.

Calhoun's works, in the Cralle edition of , or the more recent and more extensive collection edited by W. Edwin Hemphill, is a chilling experience: there is no evidence of Christian thinking. In the North, the abolitionists wanted conflict, not resolution. Slavery could have been abolished had the North been ready to take practical steps, such as compensating the slave-owners and some kind of plan for the future of the slaves. The Abolitionists, however, wanted conflict, as did the secessionists by Lincoln, without war, would have been a stalemated President, with a hostile Congress in power. The demand in the radical circles both North and South was for conflict as the solution. Otto Scott has pointed out that, that at about the same time, many courntires with a higher perfentage of slaves freed them all peaceably; only the United States had a war over the matter.

In the U. In a travel essay written for a French magazine on his return fromt he U. Finally, you see a field cleared, a cabin made from half-shaped tree trunks admitting the light through one narrow window only. You think that you have at last reached the home of the American peasant. You make your way into this cabin that seems th asylum of all wretchedness but the owner of the place is dressed in the same clothes as yours and he speaks the language of towns. On his rough table are books and newspapers, he himself is anxious to know exactly what is happening in old Europe and asks you to tell him what has most struck you in his country. One might think one was meeting a rich landowner who had come to spend just a few nights in a hunting lodge.

This was in One can say that Toqueville found a superior settler without invalidating his point that the Americans in the most remote areas were not peasants but citizens of the Western world. This made them more readily susceptible to currents of thought than were rural peoples in Europe. There was another factor. The American War of Independence had been a legal break. The colonies were not under Parliament but the crown. They were chartered colonies.

Under law, the agents of the crown, held by the ailing George III, were violating the charters and placing the colonies under Parliament. Their powers were subverted, and the colonies were subjected to an armed invasion by Parliament. This same scenerio is happening today, and has been happening for the last few decades. Therefore, when the coming conflict, and there will be a conflict because evil men who control the Congress, President and Courts from behind the scenes wish such a conflict. In , a monthly journal, "The Old Guard" began publication in New York, dedicated to the defense in effect of secession.

At the same time, however, a subtle shift had taken place. The War of Independence had become known as the American Revolution. Jacobinism flourished in the United States with the French Revolution, especially in Democratic circles. A legally faithful course of severance became confused wiht revolution. Aledxander H. Stephens, the Confederate vice-president, in his great "Constitutional View of the Late War Between the States," defined the legalities of the war.

But it was not Stephens who precipitated the war but men like Edmund Ruffin, known as a firebrand. The roots of that war are with us still. North, South, East and West, the belief in the conflict of interests is very great, and it still predisposes Americans to senseless divisions. The conflict of interests concept is born of a world view which is implicitly evolutionary, posits the struggle for survival, and sees that struggle as inherent to life, i. The Calvinistic insistance on the moral antithesis seeks its resolution in conversion, in a new creation. The conflict of interestbelief seeks its "resolution" in the obliteration of the opponent.

It has led to the doctrine of Total War in the military sphere and elsewhere. Not surprisingly, the modern military strategy of Total War began in the so-called Civil War with men like Quantrill in the South a guerilla , and General Sherman in the North. Its history is a grim one. One of the most startling spectacles of the, supposed, collapse of Soviet Communism was surely the Confederate battle flags which occasionally waved above the mass rallies of the Baltic peoples, as they demonstrated to press their claims of sovereignty. Not surprisingly, the pictures of those flags did not make it into the politically correct American newspapers.

Still, their presence suggests that we may need to rethink our own view of America's secessionist history in light of the current popularity of post-communist secessionist movements. For too many, secessionism is an argument of convenience, wherein we take sides based on whether we like or dislike the seceding arty. Irish-Americans were almost deliriously suportive of the Irish Republic's secession from the United Kingdom. The Northern six counties remained loyal to Britain, based on ties of culture and relition. Indeed, his biography is still sold by the ruling Ulster Unionist Party. As Britain prepares to abandon Northern Ireland, it shall be interesting to see if the Ulstermen shall remain so deeply committed to unionism, or suddenly find confederation, or even independence, as preferable to submersion into the Roman Catholic Republic to the south.

If secessionism and unionism are, in fact, mere posturing the problem, then becomes one of identifying and formulating a principled basis for government itself, as it relates toplace and culture, rather than expediency. For the Christian, one obviously srarts with two basic Scriptural facts: 1. God divided the peoples of the earth at Babel, and 2. He established the bounds of the nations. The question is how properly to apply these foundational principles to the question of nationhood today. Furthermore, it is important that our view of secession and nationhood bee applicable to every circumstance, from the United States to the former Yugoslavia to the Hutu and Tutsi tribal wars of Africa.

Diversity and Confederation : For the Founders of the American Republic, the answer was obviously covenantal and constitutional. The notion that the American colonies were homogeneous is pure fiction. The colonies were certainly as distinct, at least regionally, as any parts of the United States are today. It was the subsequent battle against Britain that temporarily allied the colonies with one another and laid the foundation for post-war confederation. The first attempt, codified in the Articles of Confederation, proved to have several flaws at least to those who fovored a stong central government and was subsequently replaced with the current Constitution.

Over the next century, the South would flourish agriculturally, while manufacturing and commece grew rapidly in the North. This was not merely a feature of topography climate and opportunity, but also an outworking of cultural predispositions. In his book, Cracker Culture, Grady McWhiney argues persuasively that the South was or became through immigration culturally Celtic, while the North remained culturally British and German. His study of surnames showed that by a substantial margin, Southern soldiers were of Celtic descent.

A substantial majority of Northern soldiers, on the other hand, bore British surnames. McWhiney points out that the Irish immigrants to the Old South were decidely not strong Roman Catholics and were quickly assimilated into the various branches of Protestantism then extant. That the states were able to confederate after the first War for Independence is testimony to the great men with whom God providentially chose to bless the respective colony-states.

Modern history texts virtually dismiss these men's labors on behalf of confederation, along with confederation itself. The popular notion is that confederation was rejected and national unionism adopted, almost without debate. Only those completely unfamiliar with the history of the period could adopt such Northern revisionism with a straight face. The debate was intelligent and intense, on both sides. In the end, we adopted a federal system, not a national one.

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