🔥🔥🔥 Failure In King Richard II

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Failure In King Richard II

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He became Duke of Aquitaine by right of his wife 18 May He landed in England in Jan and obliged King Stephen to recognise him as his heir, from which time Henry governed England as Justiciar. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the burial of "uxor [regis Henrici] regina Alienordis" in the same abbey as her husband[]. She and her son arrived at King Henry's court soon after his accession[]. The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified. The Chronicon Johannis Bromton abbatis Jornalensis as cited by Eyton records that Rosamond Clifford became "openly and avowedly the paramour of the king" after he imprisoned Queen Eleanor following the rebellion of his sons in [].

Eyton adds that "for an indefinite time previously she had been secretly domiciled at Woodstock" but he does not cite the primary source on which he bases this statement[]. It is not known whether he draws the conclusion from the Chronicon Johannis Bromton the original of which has not yet been consulted. Further discussion of this problem will have to wait until more indications about the family chronology come to light. She was known as "Fair Rosamond", although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. Mistress 4 : IDA, daughter of William Longespee refers to his mother as "comitissa Ida, mater mea" and "Ida comitissa, mater mea" in two charters[].

She is identified as the wife of Roger Bigod Earl of Norfolk. This identification is based on a list of hostages captured at the battle of Bouvines in which includes "Rad[ulfus] Bigot frater comitis Salesbir[iensis]"[]. Mistresses 6 - 9 : The names of these mistresses of King Henry are not known. Predecessor: Stephen Successor: Richard the Lionheart. Raised in Anjou, and first visited England in to defend his mother's claim to the disputed throne of Stephen of England.

Acquired Normandy and Anjou on the death of his father in Sep , and more than doubled his French holdings as a result of his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine. Henry was the son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda, who was the daughter of King Henry I and took the title of Empress from her first marriage. He became actively involved by the age of 14 in his mother's efforts to claim the throne of England, and was made the Duke of Normandy at He inherited Anjou in and shortly afterwards married Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to the French king Louis VII had recently been annulled.

King Stephen agreed to a peace treaty after Henry's military expedition to England in , and Henry inherited the kingdom on Stephen's death a year later. Still quite young, he now controlled what would later be called the Angevin Empire, stretching across much of western Europe. Henry was an energetic and sometimes ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the lands and privileges of his royal grandfather, Henry I.

During the early years of the younger Henry's reign he restored the royal administration in England, re-established hegemony over Wales and gained full control over his lands in Anjou, Maine and Touraine. Henry soon came into conflict with Louis VII and the two rulers fought what has been termed a "cold war" over several decades. Henry expanded his empire, often at Louis's expense, taking Brittany and pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse; despite numerous peace conferences and treaties no lasting agreement was reached. Although Henry usually worked well with the local hierarchies of the Church, his desire to reform England's relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury.

This controversy lasted for much of the s and resulted in Becket's death in As Henry's reign progressed he had many children with Eleanor, and tensions over the future inheritance of the empire began to emerge, encouraged first by Louis VII and then Louis's son and successor Philip Augustus. In Henry's heir apparent, "Young Henry", rebelled in protest against his father; he was joined by his brothers Richard and Geoffrey and by their mother, Eleanor.

France, Scotland, Flanders and Boulogne allied with the rebels against Henry. The Great Revolt spread across Henry's lands and was only defeated by his vigorous military action and talented local commanders, many of them "new men" appointed for their loyalty and administrative skills. Henry was mostly generous in victory and appeared for the moment to be at the height of his powers, but Young Henry and Geoffrey revolted again in , resulting in Young Henry's death. Despite invading Ireland to provide lands for his youngest son John, Henry struggled to find ways to satisfy all his sons' desires for land and immediate power.

Philip successfully played on Richard's fears that Henry would make John king, and a final rebellion broke out in Decisively defeated by Philip and Richard and suffering from a bleeding ulcer, Henry retreated to Chinon in Anjou, where he died. Henry's empire quickly collapsed during the reign of his youngest son John. Many of the changes Henry introduced during his long rule, however, had long-term consequences. Henry's legal changes are generally considered to have laid the basis for the English Common Law, while his intervention in Brittany, Wales and Scotland shaped the development of their societies and governmental systems.

Historical interpretations of Henry's reign have changed considerably over time. In the 18th century, scholars argued that Henry was a driving force in the creation of a genuinely English monarchy and, ultimately, a unified Britain. During the Victorian expansion of the British Empire, historians were keenly interested in the formation of Henry's own empire, but they also expressed concern over his private life and treatment of Becket.

Lateth-century historians have combined British and French historical accounts of Henry, challenging earlier Anglocentric interpretations of his reign. The Great Tower at Dover Castle is the most spectacular building in one of Europe's most spectacular castles. During the eight centuries of its existence it has been the scene of numerous events in the mainstream of English history. Its heyday, however, was undoubtedly in the decades after its creation in the late 12th century. But although it is superbly preserved and still gives an instant impression of the power and ambition of its builder, to understand how it might have functioned, looked and felt in that period requires a lot more knowledge and imagination. He became actively involved by the age of 14 in his mother's efforts to claim the throne of England, then occupied by Stephen of Blois, and was made Duke of Normandy at Stephen agreed to a peace treaty after Henry's military expedition to England in Henry inherited the kingdom on Stephen's death a year later.

Henry's desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Henry expanded his empire, often at Louis' expense, taking Brittany and pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse; despite numerous peace conferences and treaties no lasting agreement was reached. By , he controlled England, large parts of Wales, the eastern half of Ireland and the western half of France, an area that would later come to be called the Angevin Empire. Henry and Eleanor had eight children.

As they grew up, tensions over the future inheritance of the empire began to emerge, encouraged by Louis and his son King Philip II. In Henry's heir apparent, "Young Henry", rebelled in protest; he was joined by his brothers Richard and Geoffrey and by their mother, Eleanor. France, Scotland, Flanders and Boulogne allied themselves with the rebels. The Great Revolt was only defeated by his vigorous military action and talented local commanders, many of them "new men" appointed for their loyalty and administrative skills. Young Henry and Geoffrey revolted again in , resulting in Young Henry's death. The Norman invasion of Ireland provided lands for his youngest son John, but Henry struggled to find ways to satisfy all his sons' desires for land and immediate power.

Lateth-century historians have combined British and French historical accounts of Henry, challenging earlier Anglo-centric interpretations of his reign. She was born into a powerful ruling class of Normans, who traditionally owned extensive estates in both England and Normandy. Henry probably spent some of his earliest years in his mother's household, and accompanied Matilda to Normandy in the late s. Henry returned to England in , when he was fourteen. Stephen's reasons for doing so are unclear. One potential explanation is his general courtesy to a member of his extended family; another is that he was starting to consider how to end the war peacefully, and saw this as a way of building a relationship with Henry.

Henry was said by chroniclers to be good-looking, red-haired, freckled, with a large head; he had a short, stocky body and was bow-legged from riding. Henry had a passionate desire to rebuild his control of the territories that his grandfather, Henry I, had once governed. The design would be altered in later generations to form the royal seal of England. By the late s the active phase of the civil war was over, barring the occasional outbreak of fighting. Geoffrey died in September , and Henry postponed his plans to return to England, as he first needed to ensure that his succession, particularly in Anjou, was secure.

With his new lands, Henry now possessed a much larger proportion of France than Louis. In response to Stephen's siege, Henry returned to England again at the start of , braving winter storms. In an attempt to draw Stephen's forces away from Wallingford, Henry besieged Stephen's castle at Malmesbury, and the King responded by marching west with an army to relieve it. Over the next summer, Stephen massed troops to renew the siege of Wallingford Castle in a final attempt to take the stronghold. In November the two leaders ratified the terms of a permanent peace. The two men had already clashed over Henry's succession to Normandy and the remarriage of Eleanor, and the relationship was not repaired.

Louis invariably attempted to take the moral high ground in respect to Henry, capitalising on his reputation as a crusader and circulating rumours about his rival's behaviour and character. On his return to the continent from England, Henry sought to secure his French lands and quash any potential rebellion. Meanwhile, Henry turned his attention to the Duchy of Brittany, which neighboured his lands and was traditionally largely independent from the rest of France, with its own language and culture. Henry hoped to take a similar approach to regaining control of Toulouse in southern France.

In the aftermath of the Toulouse episode, Louis made an attempt to repair relations with Henry through an peace treaty: this promised Henry the lands and the rights of his grandfather, Henry I; it reaffirmed the betrothal of Young Henry and Margaret and the Vexin deal; and it involved Young Henry giving homage to Louis, a way of reinforcing the young boy's position as heir and Louis's position as king. Military tensions between the two leaders immediately increased. Theobald mobilised his forces along the border with Touraine; Henry responded by attacking Chaumont in Blois in a surprise attack; he successfully took Theobald's castle in a notable siege. King of England from , Henry strengthened royal administration but suffered from quarrels with Thomas Becket and his own family.

Henry was born at Le Mans in north west France on 4 March Henry had named Matilda as his successor to the English throne but her cousin Stephen had taken over. In - , Henry became ruler of Normandy and Anjou, after the death of his father. In , he married Eleanor of Aquitaine, the greatest heiress in western Europe. In , he crossed to England to pursue his claim to the throne, reaching an agreement that he would succeed Stephen on his death, which occurred in Henry's now began to restore order. Using his talented chancellor Thomas Becket, Henry began reorganising the judicial system.

The Assize of Clarendon established procedures of criminal justice, establishing courts and prisons for those awaiting trial. In addition, the assizes gave fast and clear verdicts, enriched the treasury and extended royal control. In , Henry reasserted his ancestral rights over the church. Now archbishop of Canterbury, Becket refused to comply. An attempted reconciliation failed and Becket punished priests who had co-operated with Henry. On hearing this Henry reportedly exclaimed, 'Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest? Almost overnight Becket became a saint. Henry reconciled himself with the church, but royal control over the church changed little.

In , an Anglo-Norman force landed in Ireland to support of one of the claimants to the Irish high kingship. Fearing the creation of a separate Norman power to the west, Henry travelled to Dublin to assert his overlordship of the territory they had won. And so, an English presence in Ireland was established. In the course of his reign, Henry had dominion over territories stretching from the Ireland to the Pyrenees. Henry now had problems within his own family. His sons - Henry, Geoffrey, Richard and John - mistrusted each other and resented their father's policy of dividing land among them. There were serious family disputes in , and Henry was forced to give way. News that John had also turned against him hastened Henry's death on 6 July Courtesy of fantastically full family tree cf.

Parentage and Early Life. Arguably one of the most effective Kings ever to wear the English crown and the first of the great Plantagenet dynasty, the future Henry II was born at Le Mans, Anjou on 5th March, Henry's parents never cared for each other, their's was a union of convenience. Henry I chose Geoffrey pictured left to sire his grandchildren because his lands were strategically placed on the Norman frontiers and he required the support of Geoffrey's father, his erstwhile enemy, Fulk of Anjou.

He accordingly forced his highly reluctant daughter to marry the fifteen year old Geoffrey. The pair disliked each other from the outset of their union and neither was of a nature to pretend otherwise and so the scene was set for an extremely stormy marriage. They were, however, finally prevailed upon by the formidable Henry I to do their duty and produce an heir to England. They had three sons, Henry was the eldest of these and always the favourite of his adoring mother. When the young Henry was a few months old, his delighted grandfather, Henry I, crossed over the channel from England to see his new heir and is said to have dandled the child on his knee, he was to grow very attached to his new grandson, the old warrior was said to spend much time playing with the young Henry.

Henry's father Geoffrey's nickname derived from a sprig of bloom, or Planta Genista, that he liked to sport in his helmet. Thus was coined the surname of one of England's greatest dynasties, which ruled the country for the rest of the medieval era, although Plantagenet was not adopted as a surname until the mid 15th century. Henry's was a vast inheritance, from his father, he received the Counties of Anjou and Maine, from his mother, the Duchy of Normandy and his claim to the Kingdom of England.

Henry married the legendary heiress, Eleanor of Aquitaine, which added Aquitaine and Poitou to his dominions. He then owned more land in France than the French King himself. On the death of King Stephen in , Henry came to the English throne at the age of 21 in accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Wallingford. A short but strongly built man of leonine appearance, Henry II was possessed of an immense dynamic energy and a formidable temper. He had the red hair of the Plantagenets, grey eyes that grew bloodshot in anger and a round, freckled face. He spent so much time in the saddle that his legs became bowed. Henry's voice was reported to have been harsh and cracked, he did not care for magnificent clothing and was never still.

The new King was intelligent and had acquired an immense knowledge both of languages and law. It was rumoured that the pair had been lovers before her divorce, as she had reportedly also been the paramour of Henry's father, Geoffrey. The formidable Matilda's reaction to this event has unfortunately not been recorded. Eleanor was eleven years older than Henry, but in the early days of their marriage that did not seem to matter. Both were strong characters, used to getting their own way, the result of two such ill matched temperaments was an extremely tempestuous union. Beautiful, intelligent, cultured and powerful, Eleanor was a remarkable woman. One of the great female personalities of her age, she had been celebrated and idolized in the songs of the troubadours of her native Aquitaine.

Henry was possessed of the fearful Angevin temper, apparently a dominant family trait. In his notorious uncontrollable rages he would lie on the floor and chew at the rushes and was never slow to anger. Legend clung to the House of Anjou, one such ran that they were descended from no less a person than Satan himself. It was related that Melusine, the daughter of Satan, was the demon ancestress of the Angevins. Royal authority extended to all areas of the kingdom via sheriffs and the loyal nobility.

English armies, proven by their victories at Crecy and Poitiers, were well respected, managed, led and equipped. The Hundred Years War continued to drain the economy but provided its own rewards to the nobility and gave England a continental presence in defence of her own interests. On the death of the now senile Edward III in , the ten year-old Richard II inherited a throne that ruled with parliament and in front of which he had to swear to uphold the laws of the people. For a prince who sought to raise the monarchy above human restraints it was an inauspicious start. Parliament selected a regency council that excluded the king's uncle and leading lord, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster.

With interests split between Gaunt, parliament and the council, government became disorganised. The conflicts with England's neighbours dragged on, draining the economy. The plague that struck Britain from killed almost half the population. Those agricultural workers who survived now found their wages rising by per cent as demand for their services by competing landlords increased. However, the landlords were reluctant to pay the higher wages or allow workers to move to rival estates.

Hit by this, three poll taxes and legislation which stated that wages could not rise above pre-plague levels, the ambitious and assertive Yeomen, but not the poorest , of Essex and Kent rebelled. The 'Poll Tax' of became particularly hated, as it took no account of individual wealth or earnings and demanded the same sum from all, rich or poor. Starting in Brentwood, Essex May the mob rose against the tax collectors, joined with their colleagues in Kent and thousands of people sacked the City of London. The government lacked any significant military capability and so decided to follow a policy of conciliation with the King meeting the mob and their leader, Wat Tyler, first at Mile End and then Smithfield.

The king heard and accepted Tyler's demands and then watched as his bodyguards slew the rebel leader, with or without provocation. Seeing him dead, Richard rode alone into the middle of the rebel host crying: "You shall have no captain but me. Just follow me to the fields without, and then you can have what you want. Its leaders were subsequently tried and many hanged. Richard had personally seen off the greatest popular threat to the medieval English monarchy; it was an achievement that would not be matched for the remainder of his reign. The Parliament that was then called to finance the clear up and sustain royal finances generally, now demanded reforms of its own. Reflecting demands that became their motto in the Wars of the Roses, the Commons insisted that the king "live of his own", followed "good government", better represented the different factions in the council and restored respect for the authority of the law.

In this case, the nobility in parliament sided with the crown, against the Commons, splitting the political nation. By the end of this reign and throughout the fifteenth century, this situation became reversed as the 'undermighty' crown succeeded in alienating both halves of parliament. After a lot of wrangling with the great houses of Europe Richard married Anne of Bohemia, with whom he actually fell in love and remained loyal to, until her tragic and devastating death in To those without title, like his teacher Burley he gave offices and land in Kent.

Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, had the title but no wealth and gained many profitable offices as his influence over the king increased. Men like these formed a very shaky foundation on which to build a dynasty. Unlike his father and grandfather, Richard was not at ease with many of the great men of the land, the chief of whom remained John of Gaunt, the king's uncle. Gaunt's enormous experience, great wealth and high ambition aroused the jealousy of Richard and his friends. Yet, throughout his life, he was unswervingly loyal to the King.

Throughout his life, Gaunt remained Richard's strong right arm, even though the two had little mutual affection. It is noteworthy that only during Gaunt's long absence in Europe, advancing his own claims to Castille, did Richard's regime fall for the first time. Born in Yorkshire in the s, Wyclif was a theologian at Balliol College, Oxford and a 'realist' who believed that one's knowledge derived from within rather than through the senses. He rejected the human church, preferring one which comprised the body of the elect with all authority derived from the scriptures.

He denied transubstantiation and believed in the spiritual Eucharist rather than the physical one. Wyclif wanted the church reformed, with its landed wealth and tax exemptions removed. The Lollards who followed Wyclif, often called "mumblers" probably reflecting their scriptural based worship represented a general, but very limited, minority theological reform movement. The most important Lollards were a group of knights who formed part of the king's court. Richard II is so self-absorbed that he fails to see that there are many currents and movements in society Wyclif's aim was for a reformation of the church but his movement failed for various reasons, amongst which were limited literacy levels and the lack of the printing press as a tool of dissemination.

Wyclif was an important figure but the extent of his influence was limited, and the crucial contextual requirements that allowed the Reformation to occur were completely non-existent during Richard's reign. Furthermore, if the Lollards had become a greater threat, they would have faced the full assault of the united crown, church and law. After the Peasants' Revolt, when the association with any kind of opposition brought condemnation, the influence of Lollardy waned.

Years later, Henry IV attacked their heresy more vociferously and the Lollards fell into isolation after the failure of the Oldcastle revolt in Richard personally possessed a strong faith. Yet he did little to stamp out the Lollards and tolerated key adherents to their beliefs in his own court. Again, Richard II is so self-absorbed that he fails to see that there are many currents and movements in society which exist outside his own world.

But his personal piety makes any chance of further tolerance on his part highly unlikely. In fact, by the mids, Richard had started an active campaign against heresy in the kingdom, attacking heretical works, arresting Lollards and supporting the church authorities. However, no new statutes were passed. Richard's personal faith blossomed in the s and a number of artefacts survive from this time, such as the Wilton Diptych, many gifts to the shrine of St. The French sent a force to aid the invading Scots and threatened England's southern shore with their fleet.

Facing this crisis, the feudal levy was summoned for the last time in the Middle Ages and Richard led an invasion of Scotland at the head of a 14, man army, a quarter of whom were provided by Gaunt. The Scots, unable to match this force, retreated and refused to be drawn into battle, leaving Richard to burn the border abbeys and depart without gain. Parliament demanded further reforms and refused to pay off the government's debts while the French raised 30, men only to find that they too could not afford to actually invade England. Despite all this chaos on his doorstep, Richard II preferred to plan an invasion of Ireland. Richard's government was making just about every mistake possible and now fell in the face of a parliamentary backlash.

Parliament now made unprecedented demands on the monarchy, it won the sacking of Chancellor de la Pole and then impeached him for good measure. In , an alliance between the disaffected Commons and key lords in parliament ended up examining royal finances and putting the Duke of Gloucester in charge. Expenditure was cut and grants to favourites reduced. The king's authority had been fatally undermined as the narrow power base of his administration had nothing to fall back on. Facing humiliation on all sides Richard left London for one of his 'gyrations' around the kingdom. During this period he sought advice from leading judges that publicly defined the royal prerogative. They stated that only the king could choose ministers, that he called and dissolved parliament at his will and that he determined its business.

In all, it formed a clear statement of the royal prerogative. So empowered, Richard now charged his opponents with treason. They therefore faced the choice of whether to submit and face possible death or to defend themselves. The King's most powerful opponents, the so-called Appellant Lords, now moved against him but claimed to be acting in the interests of the crown and good government. The Appellants represented the traditional noble houses that Richard had always scorned. Despite his background, the duke actually had limited income and estates, and had a personal conflict with de Vere over neighbouring estates and authority in Essex.

Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick led the strong family interest that had been the main power in the West Midlands for over a century. Richard II had succeeded in undermining their authority and encroaching on their estates. Richard Fitzalan, the 4th Earl of Arundel, was leader of another powerful family, second only to Gaunt in wealth. Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham, led a great northern powerhouse and shared the personal rivalry with de Vere. In late matters came to a head. De Vere raised the men of Cheshire in defence of the king and met the five lords in a battle that resulted in his defeat.

The lords then marched on London, met the king in the Tower, possibly removed him from the throne for a few days and then tried his leading councillors. The ultimate humiliation came with the execution of four of Richard's favourite knights, including the beloved Burley. Richard and his queen had both begged for his life to be spared. For a man like Richard this kind of event, and the humiliation that accompanied it, would never be forgotten.

The Appellants now controlled the government and were faced with being judged by their own actions as rulers. They failed the test. In the Scots won a great victory at Otterburn, devastated large parts of the north and faced no reprisals. Attacks on France failed, financial reforms did little to improve government, the Commons became disillusioned and the king's popularity increased. The two peripheral Appellants, Nottingham and Derby, defected to the king on receipt of new offices which meant that in the king, now aged 22, could declare his own majority and will to rule of his own. The remaining appellants were removed from office as Gaunt returned to bolster the crown. Richard II could finally put his own mark onto royal government and follow his own instincts towards peace, which had the secondary advantage of freeing the king from parliament's hold over financial provision.

He could also develop his own idea of a more 'absolute' rule. Using his Book of Statutes Richard now rebuilt his government, authority and image. He had learnt to create his own loyal retinue, to put trusted men in office and to end the war with France and thereby the crown's dependence on parliamentary grants of taxation to pay for the fighting.

The question remained whether or not the substance could match the facade. Gaunt was carefully nurtured until , when the king had gained the authority he needed. He built up the power of a new courtier nobility such as John Holand, his half-brother and Earl of Huntingdon, the new chamberlain and rival to the Courtenay, Earls of Devon. This alienation of yet another powerful local family showed the king had not learnt all the lessons of his minority and would not be forgotten in , when the king was challenged once again.

Richard's personal confidence was growing. At court, he insisted on being called Majesty. No-one could look the king in the eye and all deferred to him in a public and effusive way. The council often met daily, kept minutes and actually ran the government. However, these reforms failed to address all the financial problems and the king still spent more than he earnt, due largely to his extravagant personal expenditure. In he gained a taxation grant without there being the requirements for war, for the first time; a dangerous precedent for the king to rely upon. Peace at home led the government to look abroad and Richard's attention turned to reasserting the crown's authority in Ireland.

Richard II became the first king to visit Ireland since and the last to do so before the s. His involvement in Irish affairs did little to increase English influence, and it also reflected Richard's failure to assess his own position of strength and determine the correct priorities of government. His interest derived from a natural wish to extend royal authority to all edges of his kingdoms, ruling via local fiefs.

On the death of his wife, Richard decided to visit Ireland in He found that the entrenched 'English' settlements in the north and east had declined further as the native Irish attacked estates run largely by absentee lords. Leading several thousand men and virtually all of the loyal nobility, Richard defeated the Irish chieftains in the Southeast. He also set about redefining the balance and nature of authority in Ireland, attempting to break down the old definitions of groups and alliances, replacing it with a broadly defined hegemony whose first loyalty was to the king personally. A 28 year truce with France in , sealed with Richard's betrothal to a French princess left Richard free to look westwards again.

Failure In King Richard II formidable Matilda's reaction to Franklin D Roosevelts Social Speech Analysis event has unfortunately not been recorded. No-one could look the king in Failure In King Richard II eye and Failure In King Richard II deferred Failure In King Richard II him in a public and effusive way. Henry's relationship with his wife had deteriorated Failure In King Richard II the birth of their last child, John.

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