🔥🔥🔥 Explain The Barriers To Play Based Learning

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Explain The Barriers To Play Based Learning

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What is Play-Based Learning?

It is also true that national security could be compromised by the export of certain dual-use products that, while commercial in nature, could also be used to produce products that might confer a military advantage to U. Controlling such exports is clearly justified from a national security standpoint; but, it does come at the cost of lost export sales and an economic loss to the nation.

Minimizing the economic welfare loss from such export controls hinges on a well- focused identification and regular re-evaluation of the subset of goods with significant national security potential that should be subject to control. Most trade barriers work on the same principle: the imposition of some sort of cost on trade that raises the price of the traded products. Economists generally agree that trade barriers are detrimental and decrease overall economic efficiency, this can be explained by the theory of comparative advantage.

International trade : International trade is the exchange of goods and services across national borders. In most countries, it represents a significant part of GDP. Because rich-country players call most of the shots and set trade policies, goods, such as crops that developing countries are best at producing, still face high barriers. If international trade is economically enriching, imposing barriers to such exchanges will prevent the nation from fully realizing the economic gains from trade and must reduce welfare.

In the terms of the analogy of trade as a more efficient productive process used above, reducing the flow of imports will also reduce the flow of exports. Less output requires less input. Clearly, the exporting sector must lose as the protected import-competing activities gain. But, more importantly, from this perspective the overall economy that consumed the imported goods must also lose, because the more efficient production process—international trade—cannot be used to the optimal degree, and, thereby, will have generally increased the price and reduced the array of goods available to the consumer.

Privacy Policy. Skip to main content. International Business. Search for:. International Trade Barriers. Economics Trade barriers are government-induced restrictions on international trade, which generally decrease overall economic efficiency. Learning Objectives Explain the different types of trade barriers and their economic effect. Key Takeaways Key Points Trade barriers cause a limited choice of products and, therefore, would force customers to pay higher prices and accept inferior quality.

Trade barriers generally favor rich countries because these countries tend to set international trade policies and standards. Economists generally agree that trade barriers are detrimental and decrease overall economic efficiency, which can be explained by the theory of comparative advantage. Key Terms quota : a restriction on the import of something to a specific quantity. Ethical Barriers Despite international trading laws and declarations, countries continue to face challenges around ethical trading and business practices. Learning Objectives Explain how and why groups place ethical barriers on international trade.

Key Takeaways Key Points Although some argue that the increasing integration of financial markets between countries leads to more consistent and seamless trading practices, others point out that capital flows tend to favor the capital owners more than any other group. With increased international trade and global capital flows, critics argue that income disparities between the rich and poor are exacerbated, and industrialized nations grow in power at the expense of under-capitalized countries.

Anti- globalization groups continue to protest what they view as the unethical trading practices of multinational businesses and capitalist nations, often targeting groups such as the WTO and IMF. A measure of the economic production of a particular territory in financial capital terms over a specific time period. Learning Objectives Explain how cultural differences can pose as barriers to international business. Key Takeaways Key Points With the process of globalization and increasing global trade, it is unavoidable that different cultures will meet, conflict, and blend together.

People from different cultures find it is hard to communicate not only due to language barriers but also cultural differences. Key Terms red tape : A derisive term for regulations or bureaucratic procedures that are considered excessive or excessively time- and effort-consuming. Technological Barriers Standards-related trade measures, known in WTO parlance as technical barriers to trade play a critical role in shaping global trade. Learning Objectives Explain how technical standards can be barriers to trade. Key Takeaways Key Points Governments, market participants, and other entities can use standards -related measures as an effective and efficient means of achieving legitimate commercial and policy objectives.

Key Terms standard : A level of quality or attainment. The Argument for Barriers Some argue that imports from countries with low wages has put downward pressure on the wages of Americans and therefore we should have trade barriers. Learning Objectives Argue in support of trade barriers. Key Takeaways Key Points Economy -wide trade creates jobs in industries that have a comparative advantage and destroys jobs in industries that have a comparative disadvantage.

Trade barriers protect domestic industry and jobs. Workers in export industries benefit from trade. However, in all instances a proposal must be specific in how it addresses the Broader Impacts criterion. Advance discovery and understanding while promoting teaching, training, and learning, for example, by training graduate students, mentoring postdoctoral researchers and junior faculty, involving undergraduates in research experiences, and participating in the recruitment, training, and professional development of K mathematics and science teachers.

Broaden participation of under-represented groups, for example,by establishing collaborations with students and faculty from institutions and organizations serving women, minorities, and other groups under-represented in the mathematical sciences. Enhance infrastructure for research and education, for example, byestablishing collaborations with researchers in industry and government laboratories, developing partnerships with international academic institutions and organizations, and building networks of U. Broaden dissemination to enhance scientific and technological understanding, for example, bypresenting results of research and education projects in formats useful to students, scientists and engineers, members of Congress, teachers, and the general public.

Benefits to society mayoccur, for example, when results of research and education projects are applied to other fields of science and technology to create startup companies, to improve commercial technology, to inform public policy, and to enhance national security. Of course, not every proposal must demonstrate impact in each of these pre-defined areas. Students collaborate to answer a big question that is the learning objective. Each group has differentiated questions that increase in cognitive demands to allow students to progress and meet the learning objective. Students are placed in small groups or teams.

The class in its entirety is presented with a lesson and the students are subsequently tested. Individuals are graded on the team's performance. Although the tests are taken individually, students are encouraged to work together to improve the overall performance of the group. Rally Table is another process of cooperative learning. In this process, the class or the students are divided into groups. This is done to encourage group learning, team building and cooperative learning.

It is the written version of Robin Table. Students are placed into small groups to study and prepare for a trivia game. This gives students incentive to learn and have some fun learning the material. This is a group exercise so not one student is to blame. Team game tournament is an effective technique of cooperative learning wherein groups are created that function in the class for a period of time. In this technique the groups revise a portion of material before writing a written test. This motivates those students that have the fear of writing the test and to learn and reinforce what has been already learnt.

This method is one of the learning strategies designed by Robert Slavin for the purpose of review and mastery in the learning. This method was basically to increase student's skills, increase interaction and self-esteem between students. In this technique the students study in the class. The material is supplied and are taught in groups or individually through different activities. The students after receiving the material review it and then bring points from their study into their assigned groups.

Since the tournament is based on a material there is a specific answer. Characteristics [2]. The students compete in the tournament after a designated time to study by forming groups of students where the stronger students compete with the weaker students and winner of the respective teams is moved to a high level team while the students who don't score well are moved to an easier level. This ensures that students of the same ability are competing with each other. TGT enhances student cooperation and friendly competition which allows different students with different capabilities to work together and acquire mastery in the topics assigned to them.

The students have the independence to have interactions with different students. The benefit of this activity is that it holds the students responsible for the material they have to prepare. Advantages [41]. Disadvantages [6]. TGT is an effective tool to teach mathematics as it motivates and helps students acquire skills and mastery with the help of their peer and through healthy competition.

Research is missing for Kagan structures. There are no peer-reviewed studies on Kagan structure learning outcomes. Research on cooperative learning demonstrated "overwhelmingly positive" results and confirmed that cooperative modes are cross-curricular. Benefits and applicability of cooperative learning: [26]. Cooperative learning results in: [48]. Cooperative learning is significant in business: [24]. Cooperative Learning has many limitations that could cause the process to be more complicated than first perceived.

Sharan describes the constant evolution of cooperative learning as a threat. Because cooperative learning is constantly changing, there is a possibility that teachers may become confused and lack complete understanding of the method. The fact that cooperative learning is such a dynamic practice means that it can not be used effectively in many situations. Also teachers can get into the habit of relying on cooperative learning as a way to keep students busy.

While cooperative learning will consume time, the most effective application of cooperative learning hinges on an active instructor. Teachers implementing cooperative learning may also be challenged with resistance and hostility from students who believe that they are being held back by their slower teammates or by students who are less confident and feel that they are being ignored or demeaned by their team.

Students often provide feedback in the form of evaluations or reviews on success of the teamwork experienced during cooperative learning experiences. Peer review and evaluations may not reflect true experiences due to perceived competition among peers. Students might feel pressured into submitting inaccurate evaluations due to bullying. To eliminate such concerns, confidential evaluation processes may help to increase evaluation strength. Group hate is defined as "a feeling of dread that arises when facing the possibility of having to work in a group [49] When students develop group hate their individual performance in the group suffers and in turn the group as a whole suffers. There are many factors that lead students to experience these feelings of group hate some of the more crucial elements include:.

When students are given a choice to choose learning activities group based or individual work students often evaluate several factors that lead them to a chose if they would like to work in groups or not. The three most common factors listed are:. More often the students choose to do the work individually because they feel as if they can do a better job individually than they can as a group. What factors lead to a student forming group hate? It is difficult to say A, B, and C cause group hate simply due to the fact that each group is unique and everyone is different. However, there are several concerns that lead to students developing group hate. Concerns about the teachers' role usually stem from lack of communication from the teacher as to what exactly is expected of the group.

It is difficult for a teacher to strike the sweet spot of not being a helicopter teacher and remain involved in the project while also not being too "loosey goosey". While a good teacher may be able to strike the balance every time this is a difficult task and most teachers tend to lean one way or the other. This can cause confusion with the students.

This is only amplified when the students are put into groups and asked to complete a project with little instructions on how to do so. The way a teacher chooses to structure a project can influence how a student perceives the project overall. Whether or not a student likes a teaching style or not can influence if they develop group hate. The next concern that leads students to developing group hate is simply that students get sick of working with the same group members over and over again.

Cooperative learning is becoming so common that students are beginning to develop group hate simply because they are doing so many group projects. Students express opinion such as "so many group projects with the same people", "we are all up in each others business". Unfortunately, it is common to have group members that exhibit signs of loafing within the group. Loafing is defined as "students who don't take responsibility for their own role, even if it is the smallest role in the group. In order for cooperative learning to be fair the work load must be shared equally within the group. Many students fear that this will not take place. This leads to the students developing group hate. Some students hoard their intellectual capital to make sure that no one unjustly benefits from it.

Ironically, some of the students most indignant about "slackers" or "freeloaders" make immediate assumptions about their peers and insist from the outset that they will have to take care of everything in order to maintain control. There are many ways for a concern about equity to warp the function of a group. Therefore, to make groups more effective, the most important thing an instructor can do to defuse student resistance to cooperative learning is to focus attention on the issue of "fairness. In order for students not to develop group hate the instructors must be very aware of this process and take steps to insure that the project is "fair".

This can be a difficult task. It is often difficult to gauge which students are loafing while the project is taking place, unless other students in the group bring the problem to the attention of the instructor. It is a common practice to have the groups self assess after the project is complete. However, "Assessment can be the Achilles heel of cooperative learning" [54] Students often will assess their group positively in hopes that they will in return be assessed the same way.

This often leads to inaccurate assessments of the group. Another aspect of cooperative learning that leads to group members developing group hate is the fact that "groups are unable to achieve sufficient cohesion because they fail to manage conflict effectively". The problem is that most students have had a negative experience in groups and consequently are apprehensive to get into such a situation again. Group hate exists in almost all student groups.

Whether it be because of past bad experiences, concerns about how the project will play out, worries about group members loafing, or not knowing how to effectively manage conflict that may arise within the group. However, group based learning is an important aspect of higher education and should continue to be used. More and more companies are turning towards team based models in order to become more efficient in the work place. Cooperative learning is becoming more and more popular within the American education system. However, it is not uncommon to hear students expressing negative opinions regarding cooperative learning.

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