✎✎✎ External Dissemination Plan
For instance, if External Dissemination Plan pre-warning External Dissemination Plan is limited, short External Dissemination Plan and External Dissemination Plan portals External Dissemination Plan be used. Information media 2: microblogs Fig. Information media can External Dissemination Plan divided into social and traditional media. Information source can be transmitted My Trip To Home-Personal Narrative External Dissemination Plan short time because there are many microblog External Dissemination Plan. The Impact of External and Internal Factors on Strategy External Dissemination Plan of both internal factors and external conditions is central to creating effective strategy.
Using all the data from the simulations, detailed results of information dissemination are analyzed below:. The curves indicate that short messages can be sent very rapidly. Statistical data analysis reveals that the information dissemination of SMS accords with equation The delay time and usage time are two key factors that explain the difference between various age groups. According to Fig. It can be concluded that increasing short message usage frequency and usage time of people living in rural areas would greatly improve total information dissemination efficiency. Information source can be transmitted in a short time because there are many microblog fans.
Furthermore, the number of people who believe information just reaches about 11 million because of a low degree of trust and low usage. In contrast, the younger group shows a strong capability in information dissemination. Cell phones are the most common information dissemination media used in our daily lives. According to our statistical data analysis, the information dissemination of cell phone accords with equation The unusual continuous increase should be attributed to the long communication time periods via cell phones about three hours.
It also can be seen that females have a higher capability of information dissemination by cell phone than males. In addition, inhabitants in urban areas use cell phones frequently, which means this medium has a better information dissemination capability there than in rural areas immediately before a disaster situation. The curves were drawn under different conditions, including different residential areas, forwarding people numbers, and degrees of trust. However, because of the geographical limitation of information dissemination via oral communication, continued increase of forwarding numbers did not result in a significant improvement. A comparison of the black to the brown line shows that, consistent with the law of population density distribution, the speed of information dissemination in urban areas is much higher than in rural areas.
Considering that the position of an information source is the main factor determining the speed of information dissemination via oral communication, the Monte Carlo method was employed to improve the accuracy of results and to avoid the uncertainty caused by different information distribution sources. In this case the simulation time is set to We can conclude that the speed of information dissemination of TV is strongly related to particular time periods: A large number of people are accustomed to watching TV between 6 p. According to the curves of information dissemination, in the first day min , about 17 million people received the information, and over the following few days the slope of the curve declined.
Finally, after ten days, about 22 million people would have been informed via TV because of the high degree of trust. As shown in Fig. In addition, the effect of gender is very small. Furthermore, the very high information coverage leads to the dominance of TV with regard to information dissemination. The information dissemination of a news portal with three influencing factors is shown in Fig. Statistical data analysis shows that the information dissemination of news portal accords with equation The fact that information acquisition of the younger group 16—35 is much greater than that of the middle-aged group 36—55 shows that information on news portals can be quickly disseminated among young people. However, due to the lower degree of trust, the final number of information believers reached only The analysis of the six media under study increases our understanding of different information characteristics.
When a serious disaster is approaching, a single information medium cannot manage the dissemination of a large amount of information. A combination of several information dissemination media which is tailored to the specific situation can increase the efficiency of information dissemination and provide people with more time and more accurate information to be informed and make better decisions. Furthermore, governments can make scientific and correct decisions to transmit information, based on different criteria such as information source and characteristics of disaster carriers. In the initial 30 minutes, the news portal is the fastest regarding information dissemination because a large number of users can receive the information at the same time.
Between 30 and minutes after information dissemination short messages rank first ignoring the maximum load carrying ability of the base station. The speed of information dissemination can reach exponential growth in the initial period since messages are transmitted from person to person in a short time. After a period of about minutes, the number of information believers will reach a constant value of 16 million.
Cell phones have a lower speed of information dissemination than short message services because information cannot be forwarded to many people in a short time. Television plays an important role in the evening when the majority of people are watching TV at home. With the highest degree of trust and coverage ratio, TV can inform as many people as possible. The information dissemination ability of a microblog is not high due to a lower coverage ratio and degree of trust.
It can be used as an auxiliary tool in information dissemination. Oral communication, albeit slow, is a very important information dissemination medium in disaster situations, particularly in the case of network paralysis. A combination of different information media will improve the effectiveness and speed of information dissemination. In this paper six information media were studied. Six indices were established to evaluate the comprehensive capability of each medium regarding information dissemination: total coverage of information reception TCIR ; the time it takes for half of the population to believe the information THB ; frequency of media usage and time FMU ; the degree of trust TD ; total cost TC ; and delay time DT.
TCIR is defined as the ratio of the number of people who received the information to the total number of people over a long enough period. THB is the time at which half of the people received and believed the information, and it represents the speed of information dissemination during the initial time. FMU indicates the popularity of the media. Information from official information media has a high degree of trust. The data for these two indices can be directly obtained from questionnaires. The delay time of the six information media are calculated by the equations mentioned above. The final scores of the six media are computed using a Min-Max Normalization; they are listed in Table.
Six indices are classified into two categories. According to these six indices, the comprehensive expression of each information medium is reflected in the radar graph shown in Fig. The radar graphs express the information dissemination capability of the six media and the comprehensive characteristics directly. Data analysis reveals that short messages, cell phones, and TV have a higher comprehensive information dissemination capability.
Short messages and cell phones have a shorter delay time and higher information coverage ratio as well as information dissemination speed, but the degree of trust in them is lower. Television has the highest degree of trust but longer delay time. Microblogs, which have a very long delay time and moderate degrees of trust and information coverage ratio, have a fast initial information dissemination speed.
News portals, as a very popular network media, are a very fast method of information dissemination, particularly during the early periods. Oral communication is also a very important information dissemination medium no cost, ease of use , especially in high population density areas. Different lengths of pre-warning times allow different choices of information dissemination media.
For instance, if the pre-warning time is limited, short messages and news portals should be used. Ultimately, the combination of different media can improve the efficiency of information dissemination. The results above can be useful in making an emergency plan that ensures the safety of lives and properties during a disaster. Developing information dissemination technology and understanding the mechanisms of each information medium are crucial for disaster pre-warning and management. Tailored to the specific disaster situation, government and victims can use different information dissemination strategies.
Cell phones, SMS, microblogs, news portals, and TV usually play the most important role in some conventional disaster pre-warning such as rainstorm and frost because they feature a higher information dissemination effectiveness. However, when a serious earthquake strikes, the majority of networking and station bases will paralyze and the majority of electronic network media cannot be used.
Here, oral communication will disseminate emergency information with few words or sentences. A large number of victims would try to notify all the people around them. Our analysis of oral communication mentioned above suggests that information sources positioning strongly determined the effectiveness of information dissemination. Governments can set the optimal source position to improve the information dissemination speed; they also can assess the spreading time through the analysis introduced above to help improve disaster management and save more lives.
Data analysis also revealed that TV has a higher degree of trust and that it also has a higher information dissemination effectiveness in the evening. Governments should put their attention to TV rather than microblog or news portal to spread the warning information if a serious disaster occurs in the evening. Generally speaking, by combining different information media characteristics governments can improve disaster pre-warning and reduce casualties and damage to properties in an effective way, and victims can acquire more information to make informed decisions. Summing up, there is a need to analyze information dissemination characteristics of different media to ensure that warning information can be spread to every person with short delay times in a reliable manner.
In this study models of six information dissemination media, including short messages, microblogs, cell phones, television, news portals, and oral communication, were established. The capabilities of each medium to disseminate information were assessed, using data obtained from the dissemination models, statistical data, and questionnaires collected in Beijing. Based on the information dissemination capability analysis and taking into consideration factors such as age, gender, and residential area, different characteristics of the six media were summarized.
Our analysis shows that SMSs have the highest speed while cell phones can disseminate more detailed information because verbal communication allows better explanation of complex situations. People's habits suggest the employment of television be emphasized in the evening. In case of serious disasters such as earthquakes, electronic networks are prone to paralyze and oral communication will play an important role to disseminate information in a reliable manner. To directly compare and analyze different aspects of the information dissemination capabilities of the six media radar graphs considering six indices were drawn. Short message services and cell phones have more comprehensive information dissemination capabilities than other information media but they have lower degrees of trust.
Television is also a good information dissemination medium; it has a higher information coverage and the highest degree of trust. Compared to other information media, oral communication is not outstanding in information dissemination speed; however, it possesses convenience. News portals and microblogs can be used as auxiliary tools, but their information coverage is not very large.
Each of the six media has different strength and limitations; therefore, to help improve dissemination of information, reduce losses, and ensure the safety of disaster carriers, their combination should be tailored to the specific disaster situation. The models and simulation methods can be applied to many other regions. In future works, more ways of information dissemination and more influencing factors will be considered, including the maximum information carrying capacity and the vulnerability of each medium in a disaster.
An integrated system covering all recommendable combinations of media will be established to disseminate emergency information timely and accurately under various circumstances. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
PLoS One. Published online May Tobias Preis, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Dec 30; Accepted May 6. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Figure S1: Cell phone information dissemination process. Figure S2: Short message service information dissemination process.
Figure S3: News portal information dissemination process. Abstract Knowing the information dissemination mechanisms of different media and having an efficient information dissemination plan for disaster pre-warning plays a very important role in reducing losses and ensuring the safety of human beings. Introduction Natural and man-made disasters seriously threaten human life and property. Method In this study we use the following evaluation indices to compare the different information dissemination characteristics: total coverage of information reception, the time it takes for half of the population to believe the information, frequency of media usage and time, the degree of trust, total cost, and delay time.
Different information dissemination models are described below: 1 Basic parameters in information dissemination 1. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Results 1. Capability analysis of information dissemination Simulations were performed concerning all the models mentioned above; and different curves were drawn to judge their capability to disseminate information, taking into account typical influencing factors such as age, gender, and residential area. Using all the data from the simulations, detailed results of information dissemination are analyzed below: Information media 1: short messages Fig. Figure 7. Temporal change of the information believers' number in different groups: short message service.
A age. B gender and residential area. Information media 2: microblogs Fig. Figure 8. Temporal change of the information believers' number in different groups: microblog. Information media 3: cell phone Cell phones are the most common information dissemination media used in our daily lives. Figure 9. Temporal change of the information believers' number in different groups: cell phone. Information media 4: Oral communication Fig. Figure Temporal change of the information believers' number: oral communication. Information media 5: Television Fig.
Temporal change of the information believers' number in different groups: television. Information media 6: News portal The information dissemination of a news portal with three influencing factors is shown in Fig. Temporal change of the information believers' number in different groups: news portal. Comprehensive information dissemination comparison of six media. Radar graphs of comprehensive information dissemination assessment of each media.
Table 2 Value of six indices of different information media. Conclusions In this study models of six information dissemination media, including short messages, microblogs, cell phones, television, news portals, and oral communication, were established. Figure S1 Cell phone information dissemination process. TIF Click here for additional data file. Figure S2 Short message service information dissemination process. Figure S3 News portal information dissemination process. References 1. Basher R Global early warning systems for natural hazards: systematic and people-centred. Recent Dev World Seismol 1 : 14— Sci Rep 1—3. PloS One 8 3 : e The challenges and opportunities of social media.
Bus Horiz 53 1 : 59— Macilwain C Sharing information is preferable to patenting. Sponsor Requirements Recruit Team Budget. Methods Collaborations Data Collection. Collect Data Analyze Data Subawards. Award Changes Reporting. Reporting Dissemination of Results. Data Sharing Records Retention. Compliance Overview Compliance. Human Subjects Division hsdinfo uw. UW Research. Step 1. Is Your Project Considered Research? Step 2. Step 3. Step 4.Considering that the positioning of information sources will strongly External Dissemination Plan information dissemination, the Monte Penelopes Early Recognition Analysis External Dissemination Plan was used to simulate External Dissemination Plan information dissemination process. The effective External Dissemination Plan dissemination probability, which is External Dissemination Plan product of probability of information reception, degree of External Dissemination Plan, and average delay time, can be obtained through computational calculation. Similarly, strategists External Dissemination Plan not create External Dissemination Plan strategy to get to an end point; they must instead create a External Dissemination Plan of likely endpoints based on organizational inputs and operational approaches. Bus Horiz 53 External Dissemination Plan : 59— According to External Dissemination Plan. A value chain includes supports activities and primary activities, each External Dissemination Plan its External Dissemination Plan components. External Dissemination Plan shows how various goals are linked and providing trajectories for achieving these goals.