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Adopted as the official religion in the Han dynasty , Confucianism has strong dictates regarding the behavior of women, declaring a woman's place in society, as well as outlining virtuous behavior. It explains that an obedient woman is to obey their father before her marriage, her husband after marriage, and her first son if widowed, and that a virtuous woman must practice sexual propriety, proper speech, modest appearance, and hard work. In China's Ming Dynasty , widowed women were expected to never remarry, and unmarried women were expected to remain chaste for the duration of their lives.
Women who lived according to this Neo-Confucian ideal were celebrated in official documents, and some had structures erected in their honor. In ancient Japan , power in society was more evenly distributed, particularly in the religious domain, where Shintoism worships the goddess Amaterasu , and ancient writings were replete with references to great priestesses and magicians.
However, at the time contemporary with Constantine in the West, "the emperor of Japan changed Japanese modes of worship", giving supremacy to male deities and suppressing female spiritual power in what religious feminists have called a "patriarchal revolution. Although many 16th and 17th century theorists agreed with Aristotle's views concerning the place of women in society, none of them tried to prove political obligation on the basis of the patriarchal family until sometime after The patriarchal political theory is closely associated with Sir Robert Filmer. Sometime before , Filmer completed a work entitled Patriarcha. However, it was not published until after his death.
In it, he defended the divine right of kings as having title inherited from Adam , the first man of the human species, according to Judeo-Christian tradition. However, in the latter half of the 18th century, clerical sentiments of patriarchy were meeting challenges from intellectual authorities — Diderot 's Encyclopedia denies inheritance of paternal authority stating, " Thus the positive laws of God that relate to the obedience of children join the father and the mother without any differentiation; both possess a kind of ascendancy and jurisdiction over their children In the 19th century, various women began to question the commonly accepted patriarchal interpretation of Christian scripture.
She proposed alternative translations and interpretations of passages relating to women, and she applied historical and cultural criticism to a number of verses, arguing that their admonitions applied to specific historical situations, and were not to be viewed as universal commands. This tendency was enlarged by feminist theory, which denounced the patriarchal Judeo-Christian tradition. Working from both the Hebrew Scriptures and the New Testament, she analysed different variations of patriarchy, and outlined the paradox of Rahab, a prostitute in the Old Testament who became a role-model in the New Testament Epistle of James, and Epistle to the Hebrews.
In China's Qing dynasty , laws governing morality, sexuality, and gender-relations continued to be based on Confucian teachings. Men and women were both subject to strict laws regarding sexual behavior, however men were punished infrequently in comparison to women. Additionally, women's punishment often carried strong social stigma, "rendering [women] unmarriageable", a stigma which did not follow men. Feminist theorists have written extensively about patriarchy either as a primary cause of women's oppression, or as part of an interactive system.
Shulamith Firestone , a radical-libertarian feminist, defines patriarchy as a system of oppression of women. Firestone believes that patriarchy is caused by the biological inequalities between women and men, e. Firestone writes that patriarchal ideologies support the oppression of women and gives as an example the joy of giving birth, which she labels a patriarchal myth. For Firestone, women must gain control over reproduction in order to be free from oppression.
The system of patriarchy accomplishes this by alienating women from their bodies. Interactive systems theorists Iris Marion Young and Heidi Hartmann believe that patriarchy and capitalism interact together to oppress women. Young, Hartmann, and other socialist and Marxist feminists use the terms patriarchal capitalism or capitalist patriarchy to describe the interactive relationship of capitalism and patriarchy in producing and reproducing the oppression of women. In its being both systematic and universal, therefore, the concept of patriarchy represents an adaptation of the Marxist concept of class and class struggle.
Lindsey German represents an outlier in this regard. Nor is there much notion of how widely differing that oppression is from class to class. As such, female liberation needs to begin "with an assessment of the material position of women in capitalist society. Audre Lorde , an African American feminist writer and theorist, believed that racism and patriarchy were intertwined systems of oppression. She asks whether a "good mother" trains her son to be competitive, individualistic, and comfortable within the hierarchies of patriarchy, knowing that he may likely be economically successful but a mean person, or whether she resists patriarchal ideologies and socializes her son to be cooperative and communal but economically unsuccessful.
Gerda Lerner , in her The Creation of Patriarchy , makes a series of arguments about the origins and reproduction of patriarchy as a system of oppression of women, and concludes that patriarchy is socially constructed and seen as natural and invisible. Some feminist theorists believe that patriarchy is an unjust social system that is harmful to both men and women. Because patriarchy is a social construction, it can be overcome by revealing and critically analyzing its manifestations.
Jaggar, Young, and Hartmann are among the feminist theorists who argue that the system of patriarchy should be completely overturned, especially the heteropatriarchal family, which they see as a necessary component of female oppression. The family not only serves as a representative of the greater civilization by pushing its own affiliates to change and obey, but performs as a component in the rule of the patriarchal state that rules its inhabitants with the head of the family.
Many feminists especially scholars and activists have called for culture repositioning as a method for deconstructing patriarchy. Culture repositioning relates to culture change. It involves the reconstruction of the cultural concept of a society. Sociologist Joan Acker , analyzing the concept of patriarchy and the role that it has played in the development of feminist thought, says that seeing patriarchy as a "universal, trans-historical and trans-cultural phenomenon" where "women were everywhere oppressed by men in more or less the same ways […] tended toward a biological essentialism. Anna Pollert has described use of the term patriarchy as circular and conflating description and explanation.
She remarks the discourse on patriarchy creates a "theoretical impasse The testimonies of other primates for example, chimpanzees   about male sexual coercion and female resistance suggest that sexual conflicts of interest underlying the patriarchy precede the emergence of the human species. There is also considerable variation in the role that gender plays in human societies, and there is no academic consensus on to what extent biology determines human social structure. Among the Mosuo a tiny society in the Yunnan Province in China , for example, women exert greater power, authority, and control over decision-making. Kung of southern Africa,  have been characterized as largely egalitarian.
Some proponents [ who? Through this basis, "the existence of a sexual division of labor in primitive societies is a starting point as much for purely social accounts of the origins of patriarchy as for biological. An early theory in evolutionary psychology offered an explanation for the origin of patriarchy which starts with the view that females almost always invest more energy into producing offspring than males, and, therefore in most species females are a limiting factor over which males will compete. This is sometimes referred to as Bateman's principle. It suggests females place the most important preference on males who control more resources that can help her and her offspring, which in turn causes an evolutionary pressure on males to be competitive with each other in order to gain resources and power.
Some sociobiologists , such as Steven Goldberg , argue that social behavior is primarily determined by genetics , and thus that patriarchy arises more as a result of inherent biology than social conditioning. Goldberg contends that patriarchy is a universal feature of human culture. In , Goldberg wrote, "The ethnographic studies of every society that has ever been observed explicitly state that these feelings were present, there is literally no variation at all.
Concerning Goldberg's claims about the "feelings of both men and women", Eleanor Leacock countered in that the data on women's attitudes are "sparse and contradictory", and that the data on male attitudes about male—female relations are "ambiguous". Also, the effects of colonialism on the cultures represented in the studies were not considered. Anthropologist and psychologist Barbara Smuts argues that patriarchy evolved in humans through conflict between the reproductive interests of males and the reproductive interests of females. She lists six ways that it emerged: [ further explanation needed ]. Patriarchal and matriarchal social structure in primates may be mediated by sex hormones.
They may also be causally associated with psychological and behavioral differences among individuals, between the sexes, and among species. For example, testosterone is associated with dominant and aggressive behavior, and with male-typical sexual behavior. In humans, patriarchal social structure may have evolved due to intersexual selection i. These features may have appeared as a result of female mate selection, or because of male-male competition.
Men with beards and low voices are perceived as more dominant, aggressive, and high-status compared to their cleanshaven higher-voiced counterparts, meaning that men with facial hair and lower voices may be more likely to attain a high status and increase their reproductive success. Male crime has also been explored through a biological lens. Most crimes are committed by men. The most brutal criminals in the world had the most testosterone, compared with those who were serving sentences for more harmless crimes.
Sociologists tend to reject predominantly biological explanations of patriarchy  and contend that socialization processes are primarily responsible for establishing gender roles. Lewontin and others argue that such biological determinism unjustly limits women. In his study, he states women behave a certain way not because they are biologically inclined to, but rather because they are judged by "how well they conform to the stereotypical local image of femininity".
Feminists [ who? This claim cloaks the fact that men also have periods of time where they can be aggressive and irrational; furthermore, unrelated effects of aging and similar medical problems are often blamed on menopause, amplifying its reputation. Sociologist Sylvia Walby has composed six overlapping structures that define patriarchy and that take different forms in different cultures and different times:. The idea that patriarchy is natural has, however, come under attack from many sociologists, explaining that patriarchy evolved due to historical, rather than biological, conditions. In technologically simple societies, men's greater physical strength and women's common experience of pregnancy combined to sustain patriarchy.
Similarly, contraception has given women control over their reproductive cycle. While the term patriarchy often refers to male domination generally, another interpretation sees it as literally "rule of the father". Some of these younger men may inherit and therefore have a stake in continuing these conventions. Others may rebel. This psychoanalytic model is based upon revisions of Freud's description of the normally neurotic family using the analogy of the story of Oedipus. The operations of power in such cases are usually enacted unconsciously. All are subject, even fathers are bound by its strictures. Arguing from this standpoint, radical feminist Shulamith Firestone wrote in her The Dialectic of Sex :.
Marx was on to something more profound than he knew when he observed that the family contained within itself in embryo all the antagonisms that later develop on a wide scale within the society and the state. For unless revolution uproots the basic social organisation, the biological family — the vinculum through which the psychology of power can always be smuggled — the tapeworm of exploitation will never be annihilated. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with patriarchate.
The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with Western culture and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Basic concepts. Case studies. Related articles. Circumscription theory Legal anthropology Left—right paradigm State formation Political economy in anthropology Network Analysis and Ethnographic Problems. Major theorists. Adamson Hoebel Georges Balandier F. Carneiro Henri J. White Eric Wolf. Main articles: Sex differences in humans and Social construction of gender difference. This section may contain material unrelated or insufficiently related to its topic.
Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Society portal Politics portal Feminism portal Religion portal. Theorizing patriarchy. ISBN Cited in : Giddens, Anthony Cambridge: Polity. The creation of patriarchy. New York: Oxford University Press. OCLC Violence Against Women. ISSN PMID S2CID July Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender. Detroit: Macmillan. Stamford, Conn. Today, as in the past, men generally hold political, economic, and religious power in most societies thanks to patriarchy, a system whereby men largely control women and children, shape ideas about appropriate gender behavior, and generally dominate society.
In Naples, Nancy A. The heyday of the patriarchal structures analyzed in The Sexual Contract extended from the s to the late s [ In Tierney, Helen ed. Women's Studies Encyclopedia, Volume 2. Greenwood Publishing. In O'Reilly, Andrea ed. Encyclopedia of Motherhood, Volume 1. Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 4 January Online Etymology Dictionary. In Kuper, Adam; Kuper, Jessica eds. The Social Science Encyclopedia. In Ritzer, George; Ryan, J. Michael eds. The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology. In Harrington, A. Encyclopedia of Social Theory. In O'Hara, Phillip A. International Encyclopedia of Social Policy. Sociology 5th ed. Transforming capitalism and patriarchy: gender and development in Africa.
Lynne Reiner. In Adas, Michael ed. Agricultural and pastoral societies in ancient and classical history. Temple University Press. American Psychologist. Modelling the early human mind. Cambridge McDonald Monograph Series. The Creation of Patriarchy. Women and History. Oxford University Press. Family Process. In Kramarae, Cheris; Spender, Dale eds. New York. San Francisco, California: Harper Collins. Winchester: O Books.Is it legal to Explain How Elderly People Can Manage Urinary Problem your professional writing service? Experts generally recommend Pros And Cons Of Life Support older adults consume Explain How Elderly People Can Manage Urinary Problem least 1. Coughing when drinking liquids could be a sign of a swallowing problem. I am Explain How Elderly People Can Manage Urinary Problem years old and retired.